Mrs, Mapy J. Lincoln Mrs. Sarah'fyson Rprer
Mrs. Helen Armstrong Lida Ames Willis
Pi Cornell University
The original of tliis bool< is in
tine Cornell University Library.
There are no known copyright restrictions in
the United States on the use of the text.
^ PURE FOOD
A Useful Collection of Up-to-date, Practical Recipes
by five of the Leading Culinary Experts
in the United States : ! .
MRS. MARY J. LINCOLN LIDA AMES WILLIS
MRS. SARAH TYSON RORER
MRS. HELEN ARMSTRONG
THE N. K. FAIRBANK COMPANY
Chicago New York St. Louis
New Orleans and Montreal
(CoiytiKhted, 1910, by The N. K. Fiirlniik CompaBjr)
— Introduction —
^^3 is the "pure food" age. So much has been written,
so many laws have been made, so much discussion has
been rife in favor of this all-important topic for the
housewife, that we feel no apology or explanation is neces-
sary for this book of " Home Helps. "
We have tried to make it just what its name implies-:-^
help for the home. Every housewife should have a cook-
book, whether she bp a bride with little or no experience or a
past-master in the culinary line. The trouble has been to find
a book that was N practical, containing mostly simple, everyr
day, useful recipes, calling for few ingredients and requiring
little time in preparation. We believe we have succeeded in
making "Home Helps" the most practical book in this
respect ever issued.
The old saying, " Too many cooks spoil the broth " is not
applicable here, and in selecting the favorite recipes of Mrs.
Lincoln, Mars. Rorer, Mrs. Armstrong, Marion Harland and
Miss Willis, we have incorporated a feature never before
found in one volume.
We commend this book to the daily use of the millions
of American housewives who are interested in preparing pure
foods under the most approved and scientific methods.
Whether your household " cookery" is in your own hands or,
that of a hired cook, this volume cannot fail to be invaluable.
The more you use it, the more good you will get from it.
While this book is published in the interests of Cottolene,
the perfect shortening which has been aptly termed " Nature's
Gift from The Sunny South," and Cottolene, is naturally
specified as the cooking fat in a number of recipes where
lard or butter would otherwise be used, there are many
recipes given where no mention of Cottolene is made; and,
, furthermore, wherever this superior cotton -oil cooking fat is
specified, it has only been after careful tests by these famous
experts have shown it to be preferable to either lard or
butter from the standpoint of economy, palatability and
Yours for healthful cooking,
THE N. K. FAIRBANK COMPANY
PURE FOOD RECIPES
For All Shortening and
Frying Use Cottolene
Irnjears ago nothing but butter or lard were used for shortening and
IBfll frying; to-day the visible supply of these two products is in-
' ' sufficient to supply the demand, taking into consideration the
amount of butter required for table use.
Cottolene is not offered the housewife as a cheap imitation of either
butter or lard, but as a vegetable product which is superior to either
for cooking purposes. Because it happens to be about half the price
of butter, or less, is but an additional reason, from a purely econom-
ical standpoint, for its use. The main argument for the use of
Cottolene is the purity of its ingredients and the wholesomeness of
the food prepared with it.
There isn't an ounce of hog fat in Cottolene, and from cotton-
field to kitchen human hands never touch the product. Packed in
our patent, air-tight tin pails, Cottolene reaches you as fresh as the
day it was made. Lard and butter are sold in h\iik, and do not have
Cottolene is always uniform in quality, and because of its freedom
from moisture it goes one-third farther than butter or lard, both of
which contain about 20% of water. It is much more economical
than lard; about 50% more so than butter.
Cottolene contains no salt, and is richer in shortening properties
than either butter or lard. Two-thirds of a pound of Cottolene will
give better results than a pound of either butter or lard.
Because Cottolene is made from sweet and pure oils, refined by
our own special process, it makes food more digestible. Its use in-
sures light, flaky pie-crust; it makes deliciously crisp, tender dough-
nuts; for cake-making it creams up beautifully and gives results equal
to the best cooking butter; muffins, fritters, shortcake and all other
pastry are best when made with Cottolene ; it makes food light and
rich, but never greasy. Cottolene heats to a higher temperature than
butter or lard, and cooks so quickly the fat has no chance to soak in.
Cottolene is just as pure and healthful as olive oil, and is un-
qualifiedly recommended by leading physicians, domestic science
authorities and culinary experts as wholesome, digestible and eco-
nomical. The use of Cottolene in your frying and shortening will both
save you money and give you better results. *
HOW TO USE COTTOLENE
How^ to Use Cottolene
If you occasionally buy strong butter or rancid lard you do not
denounce butter or lard, or give up their use. Be as fair with
Cottolene. No edible fat will keep indefinitely, when stored
too long in a warm place, or otherwise abused.
A general rule for the use of Cottolene as shortening in all mixtures
is: Use one-third less than the amount given for butter or lard in the
For cake making, cream the Cottolene as you would butter, add-
ing a little salt, as it contains none.
In saut^ing, or browning, use only enough Cottolene to grease the
pan. Add more fat when you turn the food. Cottolene should be put
into the pan while cold and after the bottom of the pan is once covered
with the melted Cottolene, more can be added as desired. Unless
used in this way, Cottolene may bum and throw off an odor, as
would any other cooking fat.
For deep frying, have Cottolene at least deep enough to cover,
or float, the article being fried, heating slowly. For uncooked mix-
tures, test with a bit of dough, which should rise at once to the top
'with some sputtering; the fat should be kept at an even temperature.
For croquettes, fish balls, or other cooked mixtures which will brown
jn one minute, test with a block of white bread, which should brown
in a few seconds. Make this test always — never trust your eye.
Uncooked fish and meat are better when covered with bread
crumbs to give the crisp crust desired in fried food. The fat should
be hot at first, that it may not penetrate, then reduce the heat, that
the food may cook till done, without burning. Never let the fat heat
to the smoking point, for then it is burning hot.. Cook only three or
four pieces at once, for more will chill the fat and prevent perfect
frying. Clarify the fat after frying, by browning a piece of raw potato
in lit, then strain through fine cheese cloth. It is then again ready to
PURE FOOD RECIPES
What Noted Cooking Ex-
perts Think of Cottolene
mn addition to the remarks and recommendations made in other
parts of this book, the following testimonials received from'
famous authorities on Domestic Science, attest the high regard
in which Cottolene is held by all those who have made a careful "tudy
of food preparation and food values.
MRS. SARAH TYSON RORER
Principal Philadelphia Cooking School and Culinary Editor " The
Ladies' Home Journal. "
" I use Cottolene in every and all the ways that one would use lard, also in the
preparation of sweet cakes. 1 consider it an important frying medium and a much
more healthful product than lard."
'' Author of the famous " Marion Harland Cook Book."
" Many years ago 1 discontinued the use of lard in my kitchen and substituted
for it — as an experiment — Cottolene, then comparatively a new product. Since my
first trial of it 1 can truly say that it has given complete satisfaction, whether it is
used alone, as ' shortening,' or in combination with butter in pastry, biscuits, etc., or
in frying. I honestly believe it to be the very best thing of its kind ever ofEeied to
thq American housekeeper."
MRS. JANET M. HILL
Editor " Boston Cooking School Magazine."
" For several years I have used Cottolene in my own kitchen and find it very
satisfactory. I am glad to commend it."
MRS. SARAH PEARSON STUART
Editor Household Department " American Housekeeper"
" When properly used, Cottolene never makes other than light, wholesome and
nutritious food, that can be readily digested by the most delicate stomach."
MRS. HELEN ARMSTRONG
Jeacher of Cookery.
" Having used Cottolene constantly for over five years, both as shortening and
for frying purposes, I feel no hesitancy in recommending it as a very superior article.
It is not only much more wholesome than lard, but produces more palatable results."
These are but a few. Other well known authorities who have tested
Cottolene and recommend its use are :
Mrs. F. A. Benson Mrs. Emma P. Ewing
and Mrs. Christine Terhune Herrick
NOTED EXPERTS PRAISE COTTOLENE 7
frnline-tenths of all human ailments are due primarily to indiges-
lUkl ^^'^^ °^ ^^^ aggravated because of it. The chief catise of in-
' ' digestion is food prepared with lard. The following are but
brief extracts from, letters received, showing the high esteem in which •
Cottolene is regarded as a cooking medium by physicians ranking
among the highest in the profession.
J. HOBART EGBERT, A. M., M. D., PH. D.
From an article in the "Medical Summary" entitled "Available
Facts for Consumptives and Others with W,asting Diseases".
** In cooking food, we would recommend the preparation known as 'Cottolene',
a wholesome combination of fresh beef suet and purest cottonseed oil. This prepara-
tion is both economical and convenient, free from adulterations and impurities, and
dietetic experiments conclusively show that incorporated in food it yidds to the body
R. OGDEN DOREMUS, M. D., LL. D.
Professor of Chemistry, Toxicology and Medical Jurisprudence,
Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York.
" As a substitute for lard, which is its purpose, Cottolene i)os5e5ses all. the desirable
qualities of lard without having the objectionable features inherent in all products
obtained from swine,"
DR. JAMES PAIGE EMERY,
From an article in the "American Housekeeper" entitled "The
Most Healthful of All Cooking Fats"-
Cottolene, being essentially a vegetable product, forms the most healthful and
nutritious cooking medium known to the food experts and medical profession ,"
WM. JAGO, F. I, C., F. C. S.
That eminent chemist, William Jago, than whom there is no higher
authority on cooking fats, reports as follows from Brighton, England:
"I find Cottolene to consist practically of lOO per cent, pure fat, the following
being the actual result? obtained by analysis: Percentage of Pure Fat, 99,982, I
found the 'shortening' effect of 12 ozs, of Cottolene practically equal to that of 1 lb.
best butter. For hygienic reasons, Cottolene may be used with safety as a perfectly
harmless and innocuous substitute for other fats employed for dietetic purposes,"
Other eminent Physicians who have endorsed and recommended
Cottolene are : Henry Seffmann, M. D., Professor of Chemistry,
Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania, Philads^hia ; Prof. Jesse
P. Battershall, Ph. S., F. C. S., Chemist U. S. Laboratory, New York;
Dr. Allen McLane Hamilton, New Yprk, N. Y.; Dr. Edw. Smith,
Analyst New York State Board of Health.
PURE FOOD RECIPES
Hoiv to Mea^sure
Hne cup, or one tablespoon, or one teaspoon, means a full meas-
ure — all it will hold of liquid, and even with the rim, or edge, of
Stir up all packed materials, like mustard in its box, and sift flour
before measuring. Fill cup without shaking down, and dip spoon in
material, taking up a heaped measure, then with a knife scrape off
toward the tip till you have level measure. Pack butter or Cottolene
in cup so there will be no air spaces. - A scant cup means one-eighth less
and a heaped cup about one-eighth more than a level cup.
Divide a level spoon lengthwise for a half measure, and a half
spoon crosswise for quarters or eighths. A pinch means about one-
eighth, so does a saltspoon ; less than that means a dash or a few grains.
A rounded tablespoon means filled above the rim as much as the
spoon hollow below, and equals two of level measure. It also equals
one ounce in weight, and two rounded tablespoons if put together
would heap a tablespoon about as high as would an egg, giving us the
old-tiine measure of "butter size of an egg," or two ounces, or one-
fourth the cup. Butter and Cottolene and flour for sauces are com-
monly measured by the rounded tablespoon by the experienced house-
Except in delicate cake, or where it is creamed with sugar, and in
pastry — where it should be chilled to make a flaky crust, Cottolene or
butter may be most quickly and economically measured after it is
melted. Keep a small supply in a granite cup, and when needed, stand
the cup in hot water, and when melted, pour the amount desired into
the spoon or cup. For all kinds of breakfast cakes, it is especially
helpful to measure it in this way.
Soda, cream of tartar, baking powder, salt and spices, and some
extracts, are generally measured with a teaspoon, level measure, for
this gives the proportional amount needed for the cup measure of
other materials. ^
TABLE OF MEASURES
60 drops = I teasp.
3 teaspoons ^ x tabsp.
4 tablespoons ^ K cup.
I cup = K pint.
I round tablespoon butter. . . = i ounce.
I Solid cup butter, granulated
sugar, milk, chopped meat ^ >^ pound.
3 cups flour = K pound.
g large eggs =^i pound.
TABLE OF PROPORTIONS
I cup liquid, 3 cups flour for bread.
I cup liquid, a cups flour for muffins,
I cup liquid, i cup flour for batters.
I teaspoon soda to i pint sour milk.
I teaspoon soda to i cup molasses.
^ teaspoon salt to i quart custard.
I teaspoon salt to 1 quart water.
yi teaspoon salt is a pinch.
X square inch pepper is a shake.
TIME TABLES FOR COOKING
Time Tables for Cooking
BAKING BREAD, CAKES AND
Loaf bread. . . .^ 40 to 60 m.
Rolls. Biscuit 10 to 20 "
GrahaxQ gems ' 30 "
Gingerbread 20 to 30 "
Sponge-cake 45 to 60 "
Plain cake 30 to 40 *'
Fruit cake 2 to 3 hrs.
Cookies 10 to 15 m.
Bread pudding i hr.
Rice and Tapioca i "
Indian pudding 2 to 3 *'
Plum pudding 2 to 3 *'
Custards 15 to 20 m.
Steamed brown-bread 3 hrs.
Steamed puddings z to 3 "
Pie-crust about 30 m.
Potatoes ,. .30 to 45 m.
Baked beans 6 to 8 hrs.
Braised meat 3 to 4 "
Scalloped dishes Z5 to 20 ml
Beef, sirloin, rare, per lb , . , 8
Beef, sirloin, well done, per lb. 12
Beef, rolled rib or rump, per
Beef, long or "short fillet 20
Mutton, rare, per lb
Mutton, well done, p^ lb. ...
Lamb, well done, Der lb
Veal, well done, per lb
Pork, well done, per lb
Turkey. 10 lbs. wt
Chickens, 3 to 4 lbs. wt 7 . . z
Goose. 8 lbs
Tame duck 4°
Game duck 30
Small birds zs
Venison, per lb.
Fish, 6 to 8 lbs.; long, thin fish
Fish, 4 to 6 lbs. ; thick Halibut
Fi^, small ao
to 60 m.
Ice Cream .
Coffee . . . t 3
Tea, steep without boiling ....
" coarse, steamed
Rice, steamed 45
Rice, boiled 15
Wheat Granules 20
Eggs, soft boiled 3
Eggs, hard boiled . . . , 15
Fish, long, whole, per lb 6
Fish, cubical, per lb
Clams, Oysters 3
Beef, corned and d la mode. . . 3
Soup stock 3
Veal, Mutton 2
Sweetbreads ...» 20
Sweet corn 5
Asparagus. Tomatoes, Peas. . zs
Macaroni. Potatoes, Spinach.
Squash, Celery, Cauliflower
Cabbage, Beets, young 30
Parsnips, Turnips 30
Carrots, Onions, Salsify 30
Beans, String and Shelled . z
Puddings, z quart, steamed . .
Puddings, small <
Croquettes, Fish Balls i m.
Doughnuts, Fritters. 3 to 5 "
Bacon, Small Fish, Potatoes . . 2 to 5 "
Breaded Chops and Pish 5 to 8 "
Steak, one inch thick , . 4 m^
Steak, one and a half inch thick 6 zn-
Small, thin fish s to 8 "
Thick fish Z2 to 15 m.
Chops broiled in paper S to zo "
Chickens ao ""
Liver, Tripe, Bacon 3 to 8 **
to 60 m.
to 6 ■'
to 6 "
to 8 ••
PURE FOOD RECIPES
Use water freshly boiled. Scald
the teapot (earthen, granite or
china); for mild infusions allow
one-half teaspoon level for each
cup. Pour the boiling water on
the tea, cover closely and let it
stand and infuse, not boil, for five
minutes. If you have a table
teakettle, put the tea in a tea ball,
fill two cups at a time with boil-
ing water, hold the ball in the
water till the desired strength is
secured. At afternoon teas and
for iced tea, serve lemon slices.
Mix two rounded tablespoons
sugar, a few grains of salt, and
one-half level teaspoon cornstarch
in a granite saucepan, add two
squares of unsweetened chocolate
and one-fourth cup of cold water ;
stir over the fire until melted,
thick and smooth. Add one cup
of boiling water and when ready
to serve add three cups scalded
milk. Keep it hot over hot water
until ready to serve.
Caf^ Noir (the French for black
coffee) is made by dripping. It is
also called "drip coffee." Each half
pint of water requires a heaping
tablespoonful of coffee, ground to
a powder. This powder is placed
in a thick flannel cloth and laid in
a strainer. The boiling (it must
be boiling) water is poured over
it and allowed to percolate into
the pot. The flannel should not
be porous, or the fine powder
will also find its way through to
the pot below. Like all other hot
beverages, it should be served
Boiled coffee is made by pour-
ing a sufficient quantity, finely
ground, into the pot; then pour
in boiling water. This is al-
lowed to boil, and then taken
from the fire while the beaten
white of an egg and the crushed
shells are placed in the pot. Again
place on the fire. and let boil about
one minute; remove and allow to
stand a few minutes (not more
than five) and serve.
CAF^ AU LAIT
Make coffee in a drip coffee pot,
(or in an ordinary coffee pot with-
out boiling it and immediately
pouring it off the grovuids), then
add an equal quantity of good
rich milk scalded to steaming
point in a double boiler. Sweeten
to suit the taste, cover and let
heat over the boiling water for
twenty minutes before serving.
This coffee agrees with everyone
and the dyspeptic and bilious
BREAKFAST CAKES, FRITTERS. ETC.
who have been obliged to give up
coffee because they cannot enjoy
it without cream but suffer ill
effects when cream is combined
with rich coffee, suffer no incon-
venience from dfinking caf^ au
lait. There is a logical and hy-
gienic reascMi why this is so.
mulledl grape juice
To one pint grape juice add one
cup water and half a cup oi cassia
buds, or several pieces of stick
cinnamon. Heat in dotible boiler
half an hour. Strain, and serve
very hot as first course in luncheon.
BreaRfast CaKes, Fritters
In preparing fritters, beat egg whites separately and add just before
using. If intended for fruit, add a teaspoon of sugar, and if for meat
or fish, a tablespoon of lemon juice or vinegar. A thin batter is pre-
ferable to a thick one. In frying doughnuts, fritters, etc., use plenty
of Cottolene. Let it heat gradually, and be sure that it is hot enough
before you begin to cook. When the frying is done, the Cottolene
remaining can be carefully strained to use again. Never mix the fats-
in which doughnuts, vegetables of fish have been fried. Keep a sepa-
rate vessel for each. ,
Into two cups of sifted pastry
flour, sift and mix one level tea-
spoon of salt and four level or two
rounded teaspoons baking pow-
der; chop in one level tablespoon
of chilled Cottolene, wet to a stiff
dough with about three-fourths
cup of milk, or half water and
half milk. Toss out on a floured
board, pat it down and roll one-
half inch thick. Cut into small
rounds and bake in a hot oven.
SOUR MILK BISCUIT
One quart flour; one table-
spoon salt; one teaspoon soda;
one pint sour milk. Sift the flour
with salt and baking soda; flour
or butter a baking pan and see
that the oven is hot; wet the
flour with a pint of sour milk, or
enough to make a soft dough;
add one tablespoon of Cottolene,
by chopping it into the flour ; shape
the biscuits quickly, put them
into the pan and bake them in a
hot oven for about twenty
CREAM BISCUIT (BAKIHG
Sift together one pint of pastry
flour, three teaspoons of baking
powder, and half a spoon of. salt.
Moisten with cream as soft as
can be handled. Roll out on a
well floured board, cut in small
biscuits and place in a pan,
PURE FOOD RECIPES
brushing over with melted butter
or cream before baking. Have
oven very hot, and bake ten or
fifteen minutes, according to size.
For milk biscuits use two table-
spoons of Cottolene to shorten.
Mixture like this made softer and
baked in gem pans gives an easy
and satisfactory drop biscuit.
ONE-EGG MUFFINS OR
QUICK SALLY LUHN
One and one-half tablespoons
melted Cottolene ; one tablespoon
sugar; one and one-half to one
and three-quarters cup of milk;
one egg; three cups sifted flour;
three teaspoons baking powder;
one scant teaspoon salt. Use
more or less milk according to
quality of flour. Sift baking
powder and flour together; add
Cottolene, sugar, egg and milk.
FRIED DROP CAKES
With one-half cup flour, mix
one-half saltspoon cinnamon, one-
half level teaspoon soda and one
level teaspoon baking powder.
Add One cup sour milk, one-fourth
cup molasses, one beaten egg, and
rye meal or graham flour enough
to make a soft doUgh that will
hold in shape when dropped.
Drop from a teaspoon into hot
deep Cottolene. When they turn
pver and are brown, try with a
fork — if it comes out clean, they
SCALDED CORN MEAL CAKES
Known also as Dabs or Hoe
Cakes. Mix one-fourth level tea-
spoon salt with one cup fine
white com meal (Rhode Island
and Southern varieties preferred).
Scald with boiling water sufficient
to wet and swell every grain and
have the mixture barely bold to-
gether. Then thin with cold milk
to a soft dough that will keep its
shape. Drop from a tablespoon
on a griddle well greased with
Cottolene, or butter, or salt pork
fat. Shape them as they cook,
turn them round for uniform
browning and turn over when
brown on one side. When done,
let them stand in the oven for a
few minutes. They absorb a deal
of fat in cooking, and when ready
to turn, put a bit on each, that
the fresh side may be equally
Add to the Baking-Powder Bis-
cuit formula, twice the amount of
Cottolene, or use only three level
teaspoons of baking powder, and
add one egg if you prefer. When
baked pull the biscuit apart,
spread with butter and put
mashed and sweetened berries or
other fruit, between the crusts
and over the whole. The biscuits
are more easily served than large
Beat two large or three small
eggs well; mix carefully two cups
flour, half teaspoon of salt and
two cups of milk with eggs. Pour
into hot greased irons and bake
in rather hot oven half an hour
or more, according to size. Serve
BREAKFAST CAKES, FRITTERS. ETC.
OLD TIME CORNBREAD
One pint sifted yellow corn
meal, one pint flour, one pint sour
milk, two eggs beaten light, one-
half cup sugar; Cottolene, about
the size of a small egg, melted
and added last thing, one tea-
spoon soda added to the milk.
Add to the beaten eggs the milk
and meal alternately, then the
Cottolene and sugar. Bake
twenty minutes in hot oven.
One cup of sifted flour, (one-third
of this cup may be entire wheat,
or fine com meal, or rye meal).
Before mixing, sift on the flour
one-half level teaspoon each of
salt and soda, and one level tea-
spoon of baking powder. Mix,
and add one beaten egg and one
tablespoon of melted Cottolene;
if the milk is one-third cream,
omit the Cottolene. Beat well
and cook on a griddle, greased
slightly with Cottolene. Flours
and meals vary, and if the first
cake is not right, add more flour
or moisture, as needed.
At night mix one cup graham
flour, two cups buckwheat, one
level teaspoon salt, and moisten
with warm water to make thick
batter. , Add two tablespoons
molasses and one-half cake com-
pressed yeast, softened in a little
water. Cover, and let it rise.
In the morning, stir the batter
down and thin it, if needed, with
warm water; and if there be any
sour odor, add one-fourth level
teaspoon soda dissolved in a little
water. When all is ready for
breakfast, fry the cakes as wanted
on a griddle greased slightly with
Cottolene. In all frying on a
griddle, use only fat enough to
give a slight film of grease — any
more than this makes extra work
for you by burning on and filling
the room with smoke.
NEW ENGLAND DOUGHNUTS
One quart sifted flour, one-half
teaspoon salt, one-fourth teaspoon
grated nutmeg, three teaspoons
baking powder. Sift all together
until mixed. Beat two eggs light
with two ounces (four tablespoons
or one-fourth cup) Cottolene and
one cup granulated sugar. Add
one cup milk and the sifted flour.
Some qualities of flour require a
little more milk to make a soft
dough. Roll out about one-half
inch thick and cut with a ring
cutter. When all are cut out,
have ready the frying kettle with
sufficient hot Cottolene to float
the doughnuts while frying. Test
with a piece of the dough. If it
comes immediately to the surface
it is hot enough to begin frying.
Cook about three minutes, turn-
ing frequently to keep them
smooth and like balls. When
taken from the fat, dust with
powdered sugar and cinnamon.
To one pint of risen bread dough,
work in one cup sugar beaten
PURE FOOD RECIPES
with two eggs and one teaspoon
melted Cottolene. Mix a little
nutmeg, or cinnamon, with one-
fourth cup of flour; add this, and
enough more flour to make a stiff
dough. Roll and cut, and let
them rise half an hour before
frying in deep, hot Cottolene.
Three tart apples; two eggs, one
cup milk, one teaspoon salt,
about one and one-half cups flour,
one teaspoon baking powder.
Pare and core the apples; cut
them into rings; dust with sugar
and cinnamon ; staild aside to use.
Beat eggs without separating,
until light; add milk,' salt and
sufficient flour to make a soft
batter; beat well and add the
baking powder; beat again.
Have ready, very hot, a deep pka
of Cottolene, dip each ring of
apple in the batter, drop it in the
Cottolene and fry until brown.
Serve hot, dusted with powdered
Almost any kind of fine fruit may
be served in the form of fritters.
Apples, bananas, pears, oranges,
peaches, etc., are all suitable for
this form of entrfe. Apples
should be pared, cored and cut
into round slices about half an
inch thick. They inay be sea-
soned with a little lemon jiiice
and nutmeg, if these flavors be
liked. ' Bananas should be cut in
round slices about an inch thick;
or, they may be cut in halves and
split. ,Pears may be cut in quarters,
while oranges may be diviaed
into sections or cut in slices, care
being taken to remove the seeds.
For six people use: One-half
pint flour, one gill milk, two tea-
spoons sugar, one-half teaspoon
salt, two tablespoons melted but-
ter and two eggs.
Half pound rice, four and one-
half ounces Cottolene, one quart
milk, four eggs, one-half pound
flour, one teaspoon baking pow-
der, a little salt.
Soak the rice, boil soft, drain
and mix with the Cottolene; let
cool, add the milk, salt and eggs.
Sift in a quarter of a pound of
flour with a teaspoon of baking
powder. Bake on well -greased
To one quart of raw potato, either
grated or run through food chop-
per, add four eggs singly, beating
each one in thoroughly. Add salt
and pepper and a little flour, only
enough to bind the mixture; the
amount will vary owing to differ-
ence in potatoes. Fry by the
spoonful in drippings or Cottolene
and serve promptly.
Two eggs; one cup sugar; one
tablespoon Cottolene ; one cup of
milk; two cups flour; one tea-
spoon baking powder; nutmeg;
BREAD AND ROLLS
Beat the eggs until light, add
sugar, melted Cottolene and milk;
mix and add about two cups of
flour and one teaspoon baking
powder, sifted together; beat
well ; add grating of nutmeg and
sufficient flour to make a soft
dough; knead lightly; roll out, cut
and fry . in very hot Cottolene.
Dust with powdered sugar.
Bread and Rolls
Cottolene is wholly adapted to all uses in the kitchen where lard is used
and in the majority of cases where butter is used. It makes lighter
biscuit than lard, and be they ever so rich, they are never greasy. It
is more economical, requiring one-third less than either butter or lard.
It has no peculiar flavor, no coloring matter and no salt, and in general
use the amount of salt required with lard should always be used.
Bread and rolls should rise in a moderately warm place. If in too
cold a place it will be heavy, and if in too hot, sour. I- +be case of
soured dough, a teaspoon of soda will correct the sourness of the dough,
but will not bring back the sweetness of the flour. Bread should rise
to twice its original size before it is ready to bake, and small loaves
are always preferable to large ones.
Rolls and all baking-powder bread require a hotter oven than a
yeast-raised bread. In using baking powder always sift it twice with
the flour. A teaspoon of baking powder to each pint of flour is a
Place in your bread or mixing
bowl one heaping teaspoon of
Cottolene, one teaspoon of salt,
and one teaspoon of sugar. Pour
over these one pint of milk which
has been heated to steaming
point and stir until the salt and
sugar are dissolved, then allow to
cool. When lukewarm, add one-
half cup of yeast or one-half a
compressed yeast cake dissolved
in a little lukewarm water. Then
stir in enough flour to make a
rather stiff batter. Beat vigor-
ously until the batter is perfectly
smooth and full of air bubbles.
Cover with a cloth and lid to
exclude the air and set in a warm
place to rise. The kitchen table
is near enough the fire in summer.
In the winter have a temperature
of about seventy degrees Fahr.
When the batter doubles its bulk
and is light and spongy stir into it
sufficient flour to make a moder-
ately stiff dough (soft as can be
handled makes lighter bread).
Flour ytiur bread board. Turn
out the dough and knead lightly
and quickly until it becomes
smooth and elastic and will not
stick to the hands or board.
Return to the bowl, cover as
PURE FOOD RECIPES
before, and set to rise again. When
the dough doubles its bulk place
again on the moulding board and
separate into two loaves. Mold
and turn into well greased bread
pans and cover and set to rise
again. When the loaves double
their original bulk place in a
moderately quick oven and bake
for three-quarters of an hour.
(Without kneading.) Scald one
cup of milk and melt in it one
level teaspoon Cottolene, one
level teaspoon sugar and one-half
level teaspoon salt. When cool,
add one-half cake compressed
yeast softened in one-half cup
lukewarm water. Stir in about
one and one-half cups of white
flour, or enough to make a drop
batter after beating well. Cover
and place the bowl in a pan of
warm water as hot as you can
bear your hand in. Keep the
water at the same temperature
until the batter is full of bubbles,
about an hour. Stir in enough
more flour to make a dough that
will keep up round after you stop
stirring. Cut through, and turn
over with a broad knife, and if it
settles to a level it needs a trifle
more flour. Cut and stir it till no
dry flour is seen, then cover and
stand again in the pan of warm
water, and after another hour it
should be doubled in bulk. If
you are not ready to attend to it
then, cut it s.way from the bowl,
turn the dough over and over and
let it rise again for a short time.
This liberates some of the gas
and" prevents the fermentation
going on to the sour state. Toss
out on floured board and shape
into one long loaf, or divide and
make two round loaves — place
them close together in a brick
loaf pan and let rise till doubled
in bulk. Then bake in hot oven
about forty minutes. Remove
and stand on end till cool,
BOSTON BROWN BREAD
Mix one pint of com meal and one
pint of rye meal ; or, if rye is not
liked, use graham meal; or use
one cup of rolled oatmeal and one
cup of white flour with the pint of
com meal. Add one level tea-
spoon Bait, one level teaspoon
baking powder, two level tea-
spoons soda, and moisten with
one pint of sour milk, or butter-
milk, and one cup molasses. If
too stiff, thin with a little water,
after beating well. Grease pound
size baking powder cans with
Cottolene and half fill with the
batter, cover, and steam three
hours. Half a cup of seeded
raisins or stewed , prunes, cut
small, may be mixed into the
SOUTHERN BROWN BREAD
One-half pound fat salt pork
chopped fine and covered with
one cup boiling water. Then let
cool. One cup each com meal,
rye meal, graham flour and white
-flour, one teaspoon salt, one cup
•raisins cut in half Mid floured
BREAD AND ROLLS
with a little of the white flour, ,
one cup molasses, rounded tea-
spoon soda mixed with molasses
until it foams, mix in pork and
water. Take one pint milk, put
in half and mix with other; ingre-
dients. Beat, add rest milk and
floured raisins, pour in five pound
lard pail, cover closely. Steam
three hours and bake one-half
One pint of new milk, com meal
to thicken, one gallon flour, one
tablespoon sugar, one teaspoon
salt, pinch soda.
Set the milk on the fire and
stir in com meal to make as thick
as mush. Set in a warm place
all night. In the morning it will
be light. Put the flour in a bowl,
poiir in the mush and mix with
warm milk and water, equal parts ;
add the sugar, salt and soda.
Make a stiff batter, cover and keep
warm. In an hour it will be light.
Work in flour to make stiff dough,
let it rise, mold in loaves, put in
greased pans, let it rise and bake.
This makes the sweetest and most
wholesome bread a family can use.
WHOLE WHEAT BREAD
Soften one cake of compressed
yeast in one-fourth cup of water.
Sift a scant quart of whole wheat
flour into a bowl, with two tea-
spoons of salt and one - fourth
cup of sugar, and make into a
batter with a pint of warm milk
and the yeast. Beat well and
work in sifted flour until the
bread can be handled lightly on
the board. Place in greased
bowl, cover well and leave in a
warm place. Shape into two small
loaves when light and bake in' a
moderate oven about forty-five
minutes, brushing with soft butter
just before placing them in the
oven. For nut loaves a cup and
a half of sliced nuts (pecans and
English walnuts) may be added
with the flour.
Sift together one pint of flour,
two tablespoons of sugar and a
little salt. Warm a scant cup of
milk and melt in this two table-
spoons of Cottolene. Stir into
the flour, adding alsd a half cake
of compressed yeast dissolved in
a little lukewarm water. Beat
very well ; add one egg, yolk and
white beaten s^arately. Pour
all into buttered calke pan and let
rise until double its bulk, about
two hours. Sprinkle lightly with
granulated sugar and bake in a
moderately hot oven. Serve
warm, cut into squares. If set
over night for breakfast, one-
fourth as much yeast is required.
Proceed as for Milk Bread, but
instead of shaping into loaves,
divide the dough into smaU por-
tions and roll each with your hand
into round shape for common
biscuit. Bake them in muffin
pans if liked crusty, or roll each
PURE FOOD RECIPES
ball tinder the hand on the board
until about a finger's length.
Place them close together in two
rows in a long, shallow pan, with
a bit of softened butter between,
if you like them richer. Some dip
one edge of each roll in melted
butter before placing in the pan.
Other varieties may be made from
this same soft dough. Roll into
long strips and plait three to-
gether, making a braid or simply
twist two together, or bake each
in a long strip, or stick, or tie a
bow-knot, or join in rings, or link
several rings together.
French RoUs are made by roll-
ing dough between the hands into
small oval shapes about a finger
long, tapering at each end, and
put together in pairs; or rolling
into egg-shaped pieces and cutting
them half through the middle.
Another shape is first a ball, then
cut it half through each way, top
to bottom, and right to left.
Long rolls are shaped and cut
across in slanting cuts; or the
whole mass of dough is rolled
under the hand and made into a
large ring, pinching the ends to-
gether; then cut half way through,
two inches apart, with a scissors.
A knife dipped in melted Cottolene
keeps these cuts from coming
Two thin rounds with thin coat-
ing of butter between will give
you a Sandwich Roll, that will
pull apart easily after baking.
A thin piece about four inches
square, divided diagonally, and
each half rolled from the broad
side toward the point, and the
ends curved round like a horse-
shoe, gives the Crescent shape.
All of these varieties may be made
from this formula for Milk Bread,
and will save you the trouble
of remembering many recipes.
If you do not care for shorten-
ing, or sugar, in bread, simply
omit them; and if you like a
richer roll, add more butter to the
second mixing. Rolls should rise
in the pans slowly; and when
making both bread and rolls,
bake the bread first; rolls should
rise all they will before baking,
and the oven should be hot enough
for them to brown almost at
once, and thus check any further
rising in the oven. Being small,
the heat penetrates through them
quickly and sets the dough cells.
In the loaf, however, which is
thicker, some time is required for
the heat to reach the center, and
the dough goes on rising in the
oven till the center cells are check-
ed; therefore, it should not rise
too long in the pan, and the heat
for bread should be sufficient to
arrest this rising before the cells
break and run together, making
a large hole in the loaf. Rolls
are made more crisp by rubbing
the crust with butter, twisted
into a bit of cloth, as soon as they
come from oven.
QUICK COFFEE CAKE
Sift together twice, one pint of
flour, one-third cup of sugar.
three teaspoons of baking powder
and a half teaspoon each of salt
and ground cinnamon. Mix to a
soft dough with about half a cup
of milk stirred into a well beaten
egg. Add three tablespoons of
melted Cottolene, spread in a
shallow pan, sprinkle with sugar
mixed with cinnamon, and bake
in a moderate oven.
Scald a pint of milk ; • add a quar-
ter pound of Cottolene, two table-
spoons of sugar and one yeast
cake, dissolved; add two eggs,
well beaten, and sufficient flour
to make a soft dQUgh. Knead
lightly; put aside in a warm place.
When very light roll into a sheet ;
spread with butter and dust with
sugar and then with currants.
Cut into buns. Stand them in a
greased pan, and when very light
bake in a moderate oven three-
quarters of an hour.
MRS. JANET M. HILL, Editor Boaton
GooklnK School Magazine says : " For
several years I have used COTTOLENE
In my kitchen and find it very satisfactory.
I am glad to recommend It."
There are a few golden rules to be remembered in cake making. Beat
the Cottolene and sugar together until very light before putting in the
other materials; then add the yolks of the eggs, the liquid (either water
or milk), then the flour, with which you have sifted the baking powder,
and lastly the whites of eggs.
Here again remember that one-third less Cottolene must be used
than butter or lard in the same recipe.
Sweet milk will make a cake rich and close; water in the same
cake will make it light ar^d delicate.
In nearly all recipes beat the whites and yolks of eggs separately.
Always sift the flour before measuring, then add the baking powder
and sift again once or twice.
Pastry flour makes a much lighter cake than bread flour; where
real pastry flour cannot be obtained, the soft winter white flour will
answer the purpose.
GENUINE OLD-TIME SPONGE
The weight of the eggs in sugar,
and half their weight in flour.
This enables you to make a cake
of- any size you desire. The usual
proportion for one loaf, by meas-
ure, is four large or five small
eggs, one cup of fine granulated
sugar, and one cup of sifted pastry
flour, the grated rind and juice of
half a lemon. Beat yolks tiU
thick and very creamy, add sugar.
PURE FOOD RECIPES
and beat till light colored; add
lemon. Beat whites till stifi and
nearly dry, and fold them in with
care, so as not to break down the
bubbles, sift in the flour lightly,
and fold over (not stir) till just
barely covered. Bake in a mod-
erate oven from forty to fifty
minutes. You will look ,far to
find a better sponge cake than
this when properly made and
ONE EGG CAKE
One-third cup Cottolene, one cup
sugar, one egg, one teaspoon
vanilla, one-half teaspoon soda,
one teaspoon cream of tartar, two
cups flour, one cup milk.
Rub the Cottolene and sugar to
a light cream ; add the well beaten
yolk of egg and vanilla. Mix
together the soda, cream of tartar
and flour, and stir into the sugar
mixture alternately with the milk.
Add the well beaten white of egg
last. Bake in a shallow pan in a
moderate oven about half an
hour. Two level teaspoons of
baking powder may be used in-
stead of the soda and cream of
Have ready one cup sifted granu-
lated sugar, also two-thirds cup
of flour with two-thirds teaspoon
cream of tartar sifted four times.
Beat seven whites of eggs very
light, with speck of salt, add
sugar gently, then the yolks
beaten thick and light, then flour
and scant teaspoon extract lemon
or orange. Bake in ungreased
pan slowly about fifty minutes
and cool in pan inverted. Re-
move from the pan and cover
thickly with sweetened and fla-
vored whipped cream. Garnish
with candied cherries or nuts and
ALMOND CREAM CAKE
Cream one-half cup of butter and
Cottolene packed together, add
one cup of sugar, and mix in al-
ternately one-half cup of milk or
water and two cups of pastry
flour sifted three times with two
teaspoons baking powder. Beat
well, flavor and add five stifiiy-
beaten whites. Bake in two
Whip sweetened cream until
stiff; flavor with almond extract
and sherry; add chopped blanched
almonds and spread between and
over the layers. , Garnish with
One-fourth pound Cottolene, one
pound flour, two eggs, three-
quarters pound sugar, one l^vel
teaspoon mixed cloves, cinnamon
and allspice, powdered, one wine-
glass brandy and rose water.
Chop the Cottolene into the
flour, beat the eggs and sugar to a
cream; stir these ingredients
vnth the spices; add the brandy
and sufficient rose water to make
a soft cake dough; put the cake
mixture into small buttered cake
pans, and bake the cakes in a
moderate oven until a broom
straw can be thrust into them
and withdrawn clean and dry.
ORANGE LAYER CAKE
Cream one=half cup Cottolene
with one cup sugar until very
light. Add three eggs, one at a
time, beating each one in five
minutes before adding another.
Sift two teaspoons of baking
powder with two cups sifted
flour, mixing thoroughly, and
add to the other materials, alter-
nating with a half cup of milk
or water (water, if the cake
is to be eaten while fresh).
Beat batter well after all ingre-
dients are in. Bake in two layers
in a moderately hot oven for about
Scant one-fourth pound Cotto-
lene; one-haU pound sugar; six
eggs; one-half pound flour; vanilla
The excellence of thiscake de-
pends entirely upon the rapidity
and lightness with which tlie bat-
ter is' beaten, and sometimes sev-
eral efforts are necessary before
it proves a perfect success in the
making and baking. The baking
has everything to do with success;
the cake pan should be lined with
soft writing paper, and a test of
the oven made to see if the tem-
perature is right — if a piece of
writing paper turns brownish-
yellow when left in the oven for
two or three minutes the heat is
right for baking cake. Put in a
mixing bowl half a pound of sugar,
beaten to a cream with a scant
half pound of Cottolene, and beat
one egg into them for two minutes,
until six eggs have been used,
beating each egg two minutes.
Flavor with twenty drops of the
strongest vanilla extract. Last
of all sift in the half pound of
flour, beating all the time until a
smooth light batter is formed;
this should be carefully baked as
directed above. The French pas-
try cooks beat cake batter with
Three-fourths cup of Cottolene;
two cups sugdr; three eggs; one
cup milk; three cups pastry flour;
two slightly rounding teaspoons
Rub to a light cream the Cotto-
lene and sugar; add the well-
beaten egg yolks, and when this
is light add the milk. Mix to-
gether the flour and baking pow-
der, and stir into the egg mixture.
Beat the egg whites stiff and beat
them thoroughly into the dough.
When it is light and fine grained
divide the dough into four equal
parts. Have two parts, the color
of the dough. Color the thirdr
with one square of unsweetened
chocolate, melted. Color the
fourth with pink coloring, and
bake each part in a Washington
pie plate. When all are done,
lay first a light cake, then the
pink, then another light, then the
PURE FOOD RECIPES
chocolate. Between the layefs
spread lemon jelly, and frost with
Mix four cups sifted pastry flour,
one level teaspoon soda, two level
•teaspoons mixed spices (except
cloves), one-fourth level teaspoon
salt and two cups seeded and
■quartered raisins. Add also one-
half cup nuts chopped fine, if you
like. Blend one-half cup Cotto-
lene with one cup brown sugar
and one cup white sugar, add one
cup molasses, one cup milk and
then the flour mixture. Beat well
and bake in two pans,
SPICED LOAF CAKE
Sift two cups of flour with a tea-
spoon each of soda and cinnamon
and half a teaspoon of salt and
cloves. Cream one-third cup of
Cottolene and one cup of brown
sugar and add a half cup of molas-
ses and two well beaten eggs.
Mix part of the flour with a cup
of fruit (raisins, currants and
citron together), and add to bat-
ter, also half a cup of strong cofiee
and balance of flour. Bake in
loaf pan in moderate oven about
HICKORY NUT CAKE
Four ounces Cottolene, two cups
flour, four egg whites, one and one-
half cups sugar; three-fourths
cup water, one cup hickory
nut kernels, one teaspoon baking
Beat the Cottolene and sugar
to a cream, then add the water
and flour, stir until smooth ; add
half the well beaten whites, then
the nuts, then the remainder of
the whites and the baking powder.
Poiir into square, flat pans, lined
with greased paper to the depth
of three inches and bake in a
moderate oven for forty-five min-
Three - fourths cup Cottolene,
scant, two cups of stigar, two cups
sifted flour, one cup sweet milk,
one cup cornstarch, two teaspoons
baking powder, whites of eight
eggs, one teaspoon flavoring.
Cream Cottolene and sugar
until almost white and frothy.
Add cornstarch and baking pow-
der to the flour and sift thorough-
ly. Add alternately with the
milk. Then add flavoring. Beat
smooth. Then fold and cut in
the whites of the eggs beaten to a
white, stiff foam. Bake in a
moderate oven in two layers or in
Four ounces Cottolene, one pound
sugar, three-fourths pound flour,
four eggs, one cup cream, one cup
currants, two teaspoons cream of
tartar, one teaspoon soda. Beat
together the Cottolene, sugar,
yolks of eggs and add the cream ;
beat it in. Then add the flour
sifted with cream c5f tartar. Last
the beaten whites of the eggs, and
when all is well mixed- add the
soda dissolved in a little rose
water. Then stir in the currants.
Bake in flat tins.
One cup New Orleans molasses,
two scant tablespoons Cottolene,
melted, one cup boiling water,
one teaspoon soda or saleratus,
three cups flour, one tablespoon
Dissolve the soda or saleratus
in a tablespoon of boiling water,
and add it to the molasses; then
add the melted Cottolene, boiling
water, ginger and flour- Beat
until smooth and bake in a
moderate oven about thirty-
MOLASSES FRUIT CAKE
One cup brown sugar; two-
thirds teacup Cottolene ; two cups
cooking molasses; one cup milk;
four eggs ; one tablespoon ginger ;
one tablespoon cinnamon; one-
half teaspoon cloves; one teaspoon
grated nutmeg; five cups sifted
flour; one cup raisins; one cup
Work the Cottolene and sugar
well together, then add the molas-
ses, the eggs well beaten, the
milk, salt and spices. Sift in the
flour by degrees. Dissolve the
soda in a tablespoon pf water;
add to the mixture. Flour the
raisins and currants and add last.
Bake in a moderate oven one
hour. This will keep six months
if well covered.
OLD TIME GINGER BREAD
One cup dark brown sugar, one-
third cup CottoIene,^ one cup New
Orleans molasses, one cup sour
cream, one level teaspoon soda,
one teaspoon ginger, four egg
yolks, three cups of flour.
Cream Cottolene, sugar and
yolks together, add the molasses
and ginger. Dissolve the soda in
one tablespoon hot water and add
it to the sour cream. Then add
the other ingredients and flour,
and beat well. Bake in a long,
shallow pan in moderate oven.
Take for the custard part one cup
unsweetened grated chocolate,
one cup brown sugar, one-half
cup sweet milk and yolk of one
egg. Flavor with a teaspoon
vanilla. Stir all together in an
agate saucepan, cook slowly and
set away to cool.
For the cake part take one cup
brown sugar,, one-third cup Cot-
tolene, two eggs and two cups
flour. Cream the Cottolene and
sugar, add yolks of eggs, add one-
half cup milk and flour, and whites
beaten stiff. Beat all together,
then stir in the custard. Last
add one teaspoon soda dissolved
in a little warm water. Bake in
two layer tins, in moderate oven
about 45 minutes. When cool
put together with Caramel filling.
Cream three-fourths cup of Cotto-
lene with one and one-half cups
PURE FOOD RECIPES
of sugar. Add one cup of cold
water alternately with three cups
of flour sifted with one teaspoon of
salt and three of balcing powder
(three times) and flavor with
vanilla extract. Add stiff whites
of six eggs, and bal^e in three lay-
ers, or use very little more flour
and bake in a loaf, adding fruit or
nuts if desired.
One cup hot water; one-half
teaspoon salt; one-third cup
Cottolene ; one and one-half cups
pastry flour; four eggs.
Put on water, salt and Cotto-
lene to boil; the instant it boils
all over add the flour all at once;
stir well until it cleaves from the
pan; it will take about five
minutes. Let the mixture cool,
then add the eggs, one at a time,
and beat each egg in thoroughly
before adding another. When
well mixed, drop in small table-
spoonfuls, on a buttered baking
pan, some distance apart to allow
for spreading. Bake about thirty
minutes in a hot oven until well
risen, then decrease the heat and
be careful to bake them until
done. Split when cool and fiU
Cream for Cream Puffs. — One
pint milk boiled ; two tablespoons
cornstarch; three eggs, well
beaten; three-fourths cup sugar;
one-half teaspoon salt.
Wet the cornstarch in cold
milk, and cook in the boiling milk,
ten minutes, stirring thoroughly.
Beat the eggs; add the sugar and
salt; stir this into the thickened
milk and cook a few minutes
longer. When cdol, flavor with
a few drops of almond and one
Make pastry with two cups of
sifted flour, a little salt and a
little more than half a cup of
shortening (one part butter and
two parts Cottolene). Chill after
folding and then roll and cut into
diamond shape. Bake in a hot
oven after pricking well. Spread
with a layer of preserves or jam
and then cover with a thick
meringue made of three whites of
eggs beaten stiff and five table-
spoons of sugar. Flavor with
Burnett's almond extract,
sprinkle with chopped almonds
and brown slowly. Serve very
cold. The same crust may be
used for almond sticks and cheese
Melt one rounded tablespoon of
Cottolene and one-half cup sugar
in one-half cup hot milk, add one-
half level teaspoon salt, one tea-
spoon lemon juice, one cup rolled
oats (uncooked) and enough gra-
ham flour to make a soft dough.
Drop from a teaspoon some dis-
tance apart, on a greased pan,
shape with a wet knife and bake '
in moderate oven. Or, add more
flour and roll thin, cutting as
SOUR MILK GINGER CAKES
Mix two and one-fourth cups
sifted pastry flour, one level tea-
spoon soda, one-half level tea-
spoon salt, one level tablespoon
ginger, and one cup sugar. Stir
in one cup sour milk, one-half cup
molasses and two tablespoons
melted Cottolene (half that amount
if the milk is creamy). Beat
well, and bake in muffin tins.
COCOA TEA CAKES
Cream a scant half cup of Cotto-
lene and beat into it gradually
one cup of sugar. Then beat in
three eggs, singly, until the mix-
ture is light and smooth. Add
alternately one-half cup of milk
and about a cup and two-thirds
of flour sifted with two teaspoons
of baking powder and a quarter of
a cup of cocoa. Beat well and
bake in a moderate oven either in
muffin tins or a shallow pan. Nuts
may be added, if desired.
Half pint sugar, one-half pint
molasses, one-half pint Cottolene,
one gill cold water, one tablespoon
ginger, one-half tablespoon cinna-
mon, one teaspoon soda, one tea-
spoon salt; three pints flour.
Beat the Cottolene in a warm
mixing bowl until soft and creamy.
Gradually beat the sugar and
molasses into this, and then add
the salt and spice. Dissolve the
soda in the cold water and stir
this in. Now gradually work in
the flour, beating well. Put a
small piece of the dough on a
floured board and roll as thin as
a wafer. Cut into round cakes
and bake on a greased pan in
rather a quick oven. If there
be time, these cakes may be
rolled thinner and with greater
ease if the mixture be chilled
before being rolled.
SOFT MOLASSES COOKIES
Scald one cup molasses, pour it
over one-fourth cup Cottolene,
add one-half cup sugar, one-half
level teaspoon salt, and one level
tablespoon ginger, or a mixture
of other spices if preferred. Dis-
solve one-haU level teaspoon soda
in one-fourth cup cold water,
add to the cooled molasses, then
stir in from three to four cups
flour, making a soft dough to drop
and spread in a pan, or a stiff
dough to be rolled and cut. Bake
in moderate oven.
Stir one level teaspoon butter,
one-fourth cup milk and one cup
sugar till it boils, then boil with-
out stirring five minutes. Re-
move, beat rapidly, add one tea-
spoon lemon juice and before it is
very stiff pour it over the cake
and smooth with a knife.
Separate an egg; drop the yolk
into a bowl and beat until thick
and light colored. Then add
PURE FOOD RECIPES
strained juice of a small thin-
skinned orange and the grated
yellow rind. Beat in enough
confectioner's sugar to make an
icing stiff enough to spread. A
tablespoon of lemon juice im-
proves this icing.
MAPLE CREAM FILLING
Three-fourths cup maple sugar
and one level tablespoon Cotto-
lene or two of butter, cooked~until
it spins a thread. Then pour
gradually into stiffly beaten whites
of two eggs. Beat until smooth
and add half a cup of cream whip-
ped to a stiff dry foam. Flavor
with a few drops of vanilla.
Shave three squares of chocolate
and add one cup of sugar and one-
fourth cup of milk. Cook this
over hot water until thick, add
two beaten egg yolks and cook
until smooth; then remove and
spread on cake.
CARAMEL NUT FILLING
Three cups brown coffee sugar,
one-half cup cream or condensed
milk and one-fourth cup water,
one tablespoon butter, one tea-
spoon vanilla. Boil all the in-
gredients except vanilla, about
five minutes. Remove from tlie
fire, add the flavoring and beat
until it begins to thicken, add
one-half cup or two-thirds cup
nut meats and spread.
Dr. James Paige Emery, in an article
in the "American HouaelEeeper" entitled
"Tile Most Healtliful of All Cooldng Fata,"
says: "Cottolene, being essentially a Teg-
etable product, forma the most healthful
and nutritious cooking medium knoTra to
food experts and the nledical profession.",
In a covered stew-pan have suffi-
cient boiling water to more than
cover the eggs. Drop them in
when water boils, using a spoon
to prevent cracking; when boil-
ing begins again cover them, turn
off the heat and let them stand —
six to eight minutes for soft tex-
ture, and ten for medium, boil
igently twenty minutes for hard.
Fresh eggs are fuller, contain more
albumen than when older, and
take longer time for cooking.
Eggs cooked six minutes in an
uncovered pan with water bub-
bling gently all over, will have a
firm but not hard texture to the
white and the yolk will be like
thick cream, not running over
the white when' cut.
Boil six eggs twenty minutes, and
remove shells. Cook one-half cup
of stale bread crumbs in one-half
cup of milk, to a smooth paste;
mix with it one cup fine chopped
tongue, ham or chicken; season
with salt and pepper, add one raw
egg and when well mixed take a
portion, about one-sixth, and
make it about half an inch thick,
put an egg in center and work up
the paste until the egg is covered.
Roll in a slight coating of fine
bread crumbs and fry about two
minutes in hot deep Cottolene.
Drop perfect eggs in a sufficient
amount of boiling water to cover;
do not allow them to boil; but
let them steam until the white is
jelly-like and the yolk entirely
covered. Serve on toast.
Take a small piece of butter and
a little cream, warm in a frying
pan. Break six eggs in it and stir
until slightly cooked. Serve hot.
Or, scramble in Cottolene.
Allow from one to two tablespoons
of thick cream for each egg. Beat
till well mixed but not frothy;
season lightly with salt and pep-
per, and cook in portions (hot
more than two eggs at a time) in
hot omelet pan, greased slightly
with Cottolene or butter. Draw
the egg back toward the middle
(tip the pan to help it to run
there) as it thickens, and when
all the egg is set, or does not flow
when pan is tipped, turn one-half
over and toss out on a hot dish.
If other seasonings like minced
ham, parsley, cheese, oysters, etc.,
are desired, add them just before
OMELET WITH CHEESE
Four eggs, one-half cup milk, one
teaspoon fiour, a little parsley,
pepper and salt, one-half teaspoon
grated cheese, one tablespoon
Beat the eggs very light and
then add the other ingredients.
Beat all well together and pour
into a pan in which a large table-
spoon of Cottoleae is heated. Let
it cook till light brown, then fold
it over and dish for the table.
Shake the pan while the omelet
is cooking. Must be eaten the
instant it is removed from the pan.
FisK and Sliell Fish
Salt mackerel and other small salt fish should be broiled. Small pan
fish and steaks of large white dry fish are good fried. Fresh salmon,
mackerel and bluefish are oily fish and should not be fried. Boil oily
fish if large— broil them if small. Cod, haddock, bluefish, small
salmon, bass and shad may be stuffed and baked whole.
PURE FOOD RECIPES
Fry smelts, perch, trout, butter
fish, herring and other small pan
fish whole. Cut large fish in
inch thick slices, and two or three
inches square; flounders and bass,
strip off the flesh each side of bone
in long fillets, divide in halves
and roll up toward tip. Remove
skin and bones as much as possible
from sliced fish ; wipe dry, roll in
bread crumbs or fine meal, then
in beaten egg and then in crumbs
and fry in deep Cottolene, hot
enough to brown a bit of bread
while you count sixty. Drain
well ^ before serving. Or, simply
cover with seasoned meal and
brown on each side in hot Cotto-
lene in fr3^ng pan.
Cover with cold water and strip
into bits; soak over night. Heat
slowly and simmer ten minutes
just off the boiling point. Drain
and stir it into one cup white
sauce (see page 41), add one
beaten egg just before serving.
Serve hot with baked potatoes.
Of mix with an equal amount of
boiled potatoes, add butter, salt
and pepper, and drop from a
tablespoon into hot Cottolene in
spider; shape out flat and round
as they cook and turn when one
side is brown.
Large flakes of salt codfish, if
not very dry, may be scorched
on the coals, or broiled.and served
with butter. A tempting relish.
The best method for mackerel,
whitefish, small bluefish, and shad:
Clean, wipe, split down back, lay
in greased wire broiler (kept only
for fish) and cook flesh side first,
over hot coals till brown. For
dry fish like hahbut, cod, etc.,
spread with butter after they are
warmed through, to help the
browning. Turn the broiler and
cook skin side till crisp. Slide
out on a platter, season with salt,
pepper, butter and lemon juice.
To broil under gas, lay the broiler
over a pan to catch the dripping
fat, and keep this pan only for
Pick into flakes, sufficient cold
cooked fish to make one pint.
Rub together one rounding table-
spoon of butter, and one of
flour; add a half pint of milk,
stir until boiling, add one table-
spoon of salt, a saltspoon of black
pepper and the fish. Heat and
serve in a border of mashed pota-
Have the fish drawn from the
gills if possible. Stuff with 'fol-
lowing: Season a pint of soft
bread crumbs with salt, pepper
and onion juice to taste. Add a
tablespoon chopped parsley and
niix well, then moisten with
crumbs with melted butter. About
two tablespoons of fat salt pork
FISH AND SHELL FISH
minced fine makes a richer dress-
ing. Sew tip the fish to retain
stuffing and on the upper side
lard the fish with bits of fat salt
pork. Bake from thirty to forty
minutes in good oven. A few
chopped gherkins or pickles may
be mixed with the stuffing, es-
pecially with bluefish.
One pint of shredded salt fish,
ten potatoes of medium size, one
egg, one tablespoon of butter,
one-quarter teaspoon of pepper;
one-half teaspoon of salt, Cotto-
lene for frying.
Have the salt codfish shredded
rather fine and freed from bones.
Pare the potatoes and put them
in a large stewpan. Sprinkle the
fish over the potatoes and cover
with boiling water. Place on the
fire and cook for just thirty
minutes. Drain off 6very drop
of the water and mash the fish
and potatoes fine and light. Now
add the butter, salt, pepper and
egg, well" beaten. Beat, for three
minutes; then shape into smooth
balls about the size of a small egg.
Put into the frying basket and
fry about five minutes.
If it be inconvenient to use the
frying basket the fish balls may be
dropped into the hot fat and,
when browned, be taken out with
a fork. Be sure that the fat is
hot enough, and do not crowd
the fish balls. Six or eight will
be enough to fry at one time.
FISH m VENETIAN STYLE
Almost any firm fish can be used
for this dish, either cut into slices
or split open and boned. Place
the fish in a shallow baking pan
and sprinkle with lemon juice,
adding also salt and pepper.
Have in readiness one-fourth cup
each of celery and carrot and
two tablespoons each of green
pepper and parsley, with one of
onion, all chopped together very
fine. Simmer this for ten minutes
with one-fourth cup of olive oil,
then spread over the fish, cover
closely with another pan and bake
until fish is done, from twenty to
Half pint milk, three teaspoons
Cottolene, three even tablespoons
flour, one egg yolk, one tablespoon
parsley, chopped, one-quarter
grated nutmeg, ten drops onion
juice, two cups of cold boiled fish,
Put the milk on to boil. Rub
together the Cottolene and flour,
then stir them into the boiling
milk, stir and cook until a thick
^ paste is formed, add the yolk of
egg, parsley, onion juice, mix and
add the boiled fish; mix again
and add a palatable seasoning of
salt and cayenne; turn out to cool.
When cold form into cutlets or
croquettes. Dip first in beaten
egg, then in bread crumbs, and
fry in very hot Cottolene. Drain
on brown paper and serve very
hot with cream sauce.
PURE FOOD RECIPES
Use large oysters, parboil a mo-
ment to draw out some of the
juice and prevent spattering dur-
ing the frying. Lay them in
seasoned bread crumbs, beaten
egg, and again in bread crumbs
and brown a few at a time, in deep
Parboil one pint of solid oysters
till edges curl. Drain and add to
the liquor, milk or thin cream
enough to make one and one-half
cups. Melt two tablespoons but-
ter or Cottolene in saucepan and
cook in it for five minutes (without
browning) one teaspoon minced
onion, one tablespoon minced
sweet pepper, green or red, and
one tablespoon minced celery.
Stir in two tablespoons flour and
when blended add gradually the
hot liquid, stir till smooth, add the
oysters, cook a moment longer
and serve in the pie. Or, if you
prefer, you may invert the deep
pan, lay the paste over, and fit it
to the bottom and sides and bake
it, baking also a portion cut to fit
the pan for a cover, on another
plate. When done,. remove the
baked crust (or shell), fill with
oysters, cover with the cooked
top, and serve in a deep table dish.
Crush and roll several handfuls
of Boston or other friable crack-
ers. Put a layer in the bottom of
a buttered pudding dish. Wet this
with a mixture of the oyster liquor
and milk, slightly warmed. Next
have a layer of oysters. Sprinkle
with salt and pepper, and lay
small bits of Cottolene upon them.
Then another layer of moistened
crumbs, and so on until the dish
is fuU. Let the top layer be of
crumbs, thicker than the rest
and beat an egg into the milk you
pour over them. Stick bits of
Cottolene thickly over it, cover
the dish, set it in the oven, bake
half an hour; if the dish be large,
remove the cover, and brown by
setting it upon the upper grating
of oven, or by holding a hot shovel
Cook one minced onion in. a level
tablespoon Cottolene in saucepan
till slightly colored; add one cup
hot water and stir well; then
strain this water into kettle, and
add one pint of thin sliced pota-
toes. Oaok till soft, about ten
minutes. Add one pint of oysters
and from one cup to one pint of
white sauce (see page 41) and a
few oyster crackers. When oys-
ters are plump, serve.
Make a good shortcake and bake
on pie plates. Put a quart of
oysters on a stove with a little
water, half a cup of milk, two
teaspoons of Cottolene, salt and
pepper; thicken with a tablespoon
of flour. When the cakes are
baked, split and spread the oysters
between ind some on top.
MEAT, POULTRY AND GAME
Twelve nice heavy crabs, one-
half pint cream, two tablespoons
flour, one-quarter grated nutmeg,
four egg yolks, boiled hard, one
tablespoon each of salt, butter
and (Chopped parsley, salt and
cayenne to taste.
Put the crabs in warm water;
add the salt and put the kettle
over a brisk fire. Boil thirty
minutes. Take up and drain;
break off all claws; separate the
shells ; remove the spongy fingers
and the stomach, which is found
under the head. Pick out all the
meat. Put the cream on to boil,
rub butter and flour together and
add to the boiling cream; stir and
co(!)k two minutes. Take from
the fire, add the crab meat, the
egg yolks niashed fine, parsley,
nutmeg, salt and cayenne. Clear
the upper shells of the crabs, fill
them with the mixture, brush
over with beaten egg, cover with
bread crumbs and put in a quick
oven to brown; or better, put
them in a frying basket and plunge
into hot Cottolene until a nice
eat, Fotiltry and Ga^ie
Exact recipes are not so helpftil in learning about meat cookery, as
they are in flour preparations. It is the principle involved in the dif-
ferent methods which one needs most to know; and this it seemed
could be shown more clearly by grouping the meats, etc., by methods,
rather than by giving separate recipes for every form of cooking each
kind of meat.
In purchasing beef, select that with amoderate amount of cream-col-
ored fat; avoid the dark, yellow fat; it bespeaks an old animal. The
lean should be lightly mottled with fat, and the flesh should be firm
and of a good, dark red color. Never wash beef; scrape the outside,
if necessary, or it may b^ wiped with a damp cloth, but never put in
water, nor put directly on the ice, but put in the lower part of the re-
frigerator or in a cool place. Never salt meat before it is cooked;
wait until it is partly done.
AU meats should be cooked quickly at first to retain the juices.
Boiled meat should be put in boiling water, baked meat in a very
hot oven, and panned or broiled meat in a hot pan; then they may
be cooked more slowly after the outside is seared.
Of the most desirable methods of cooking beef, perhaps broiling or
grilling is best, as it preserves the juices and develops the flavor.
Roasted beef, that done before the fire, is excellent It is said boiled
meat is more easily digested than either baked or roasted meats, on
account of the overheating of the fat in the oven. Baking, however,
PURE FOOD RECIPES
develops the greatest flavor. Tender meats are best broiled, roasted
or baked; the tough or so-called inferior pieces are best braised, boiled
Do ndt buy cold storage poultry if possible to get it freshly killed.
Game is one of the most expensive meats and the average family can
indulge in it only occasionally. A general rule for cooking meat; —
dark nieats like beef and mutton, and some dark meated game, like
wild ducks and grouse, should be cooked rare, but lamb, veal, pork,
chicken, partridge, and some birds are cooked well done.
ROAST OF BEEF
Select choice rib roast and remove
small end of bone, to use as short
ribs or for stock, leaving a stand-
ing roast. Score the edges of
meat with a sharp knife and place
on rack in open pan. Sear the
meat well under gas flame. Re-
duce heat when meat is crisp,
season well and finish cooking
in upper oven, basting meat often
with fat in the pan. Turn flame
out ten minutes before roast is
done and make a gravy with four
tablespoons each of meat fat and
flour and a pint of stock (or boil-
ing water). Season well, add
Kitchen Bouquet to color and
flavor, and strain before serving.
Meat cooked in this fashion is
more like the roast prepared over
an open fire, and no such flavor or
juiciness can be obtained by bak-
ing in a wood or coal oven.
GRAVY FOR .^.OAST MEAT
If the liquid in the pan is mostly
fat, as in beef, cooked without
water, pour off all but two table-
spoons of fat, stir in two table-
spoons of dry flour apd when well
mixed and brown, add one pint
of boiling water; add salt, and
strain after cooking eight minutes
or till smooth. Scrape all glaze
from pan into gravy as it gives
fine flavor. If the pan contains
mostly water, as with roast pork
or poultry, dip off some of the fat,
which by tipping pan will be on
top, and stir in flour-and-water
batte'r, mixed smooth; let it boil
ten minutes, season and strain
before serving. If you have let
the water cook nearly out and it
looks curdled, add more water and
stir well as it boils.
POT ROAST, BRAISED MEAT
Suitable for large lean pieces of
beef from round or rump, for
shoulder of veal or mutton whole
or in portions, for fowl,_ liver
or any meat thaf has tough fibre
and needs slow, gentle, moist heat
to soften it, and also the rich
flavor given by intense heat.
Wipe, trim, try out some of the
fat in kettle (for veal, use half salt
pork or the kidney suet), brown
sliced onions in fat, dredge meat
with flour, brown it all over in the
fat, add one cup water, cover
tightly; cook slowly four to six
MEAT, POULTRY AND GAME
hours, or till very tender. Re-
plenish with half cup of water
when needed, season and thicken
it for gravy.
BAKED OR ROAST MEATS OR
Suitable for leg, loin, rib, or rump
of beef, mutton, lamb or veal,
and for poultry and game.
Meat should have tender fibre,
and if not, or if poultry be old, it
is better to steam it a while first.
Wipe, trim, rub with salt and
flour. Sear the lean surface of
meat in the hot baking pan over
the fire to keep in juices. Put it
skin side up in hot pan in hot
oven, with fat trimmings beneath,
without water. Watch carefully
and when flour is brown, reduce
the heat to about same as for
bread. Use rack for level pieces
if preferred, and for poultry; the
ribs answer for rack in loin pieces.
Roast beef, if to be rare, needs
no water. To meats needing
long cooking, like pork, veal and
poultry, add it when the fat and
flour • have begun to brown.
Baste every ten minutes, less
often for meat with thick fat on
top, or for poultry covered with
its own fat or greased paper. Do
not 1st fat or flour bum. > Add
water as needed. Cook a six
pound loin or rib from one to one
and one-half hours, a ten pound
rump two hours, a ten pound
turkey three hours. A fillet of
beef, and dark-meated game,
shotild be rare, and are cooked
without water,- basted with fat
pork or bacon laid on top. Cook
twenty minutes to half an hour
in very hot oven.
Small chops, cutlets of veal,
portions of tripe, may be covered
with bread crumbs, egg and
crumbs, and Cooked in hot deep
Cottolene, reducing heat after the
first plunge, so they will not be
too brown when done, or cook
them in a little of their own fat
Have your steak at least an inch
and a half thick. Trim off the
fat, leaving only a rim around the
edge. Have the wire broiler
greased well with suet and very
hot. Lay the steak on and place
exposed to a blaze that will
quickly sear the surface without
burning the fat. Then turn and
sear the other side in the same
manner. When this is done, turn
again and broil about five min-
utes with slightly reduced heat.
Then turn and broil five minutes
on other side. Have a heated
platter ready with about a table-
spoon of melted butter; lay the
steak on this, season with salt
and pepper, and pour a little
melted butter over the surface.
Serve very hot. When properly
broiled the interior of the steak
is pink and juicy.
Use bones and trimmings from
roasts, or the tough parts of steaks
PURE [i-OOD RECIPES
and chops, the legs, neck and
■wings of poultry, or use any tough
cheap portion of any kind of
fresh meat, first browning some
of the lean in the melted suet or
fat of the meat with a sliced
onion, to give the flavor of roast
meat. Use onion and turnip cut
small with all meats; celery or
sweet pepper with poultry; par-
snip with pork; parsley, rice and
tomato with veal.
Cover bones and tough parts
with cold water to make a rich
broth, bring to boiling point
quickly, skim to improve appear-
ance, then add the lean or tender
and browned meat to keep those
portions rich in juice;- simmer till
bones are clean. Remove some
of the fat and bones, add the
vegetables, and twenty minutes
before serving add sliced pota-
toes, first scalding them to pre-
vent their bitter juice from giv-
ing the broth an unpleasant
flavor. Thicken the water, sea-
-son to taste, varying it for differ-
ent meats. If desired, add ten
minutes before serving, dumplings
made with one pint flour, one-half
level teaspoon salt, one rounded
teaspoon baking powder, and
moisten with milk to soft dough.
Use no shortening if you wish
them light; eggs are unnecessary.
Drop the dough from a teaspoon
into the boiling stew, letting them
rest on meat or potato; or toss
dough about till slightly floured,
and cut with small cutter; keep
covered tightly and cook just ten
Have cold boiled ham sliced
somewhat thicker than for a cold
service. Spread both sides of
each slice lightly with mixed or
made mustard. H^at butter in
the chafing dish, and put in
slices of the ham; turn frequently
until nicely browned, then pour
over the slices two tablespoons
of rather sharp cider or vinegar;
let boil up and serve with apple'
rings, cooked^ in syrup of sugar
and water until clear, but not
HAM AND BACON
Ham for broiling should be cut
very thin, and bacon should not
be more than one-fourth inch
thick; better one-eighth. Cook
in broiler, turning often. Or lay
broiler over a pan and cook in
oven. Or, cook bacon in a hot
pan over the fire, turning often
and serve when crisp. Drain well.
Fried ham is improved by slow
cooking, first, in water in the
spider for half an hour, then let
water boil out and the ham cook
till fat is browned.
Use slices from rump, or loin, or
ribs; remove bones, tendons and
skin, cover them with cold water
and stew for the gravy. Cook
veal fat in spider till brown and
crisp; ' pound and shape meat
into pieces for serving, brown it in
the fat, then cook more slowly
till done — with no trace of pink
MEAT, POULTRY AND GAME
color, for the veal should never be
rare. Remove meat and crisp
fat, add dry flour, brown it and
reduce -with the boiling water
from the bones. Season with salt ,
pepper, and lemon if you like,
and serve as gravy. If lean meat
from leg, or some tough part,
has been used, put it in stewpan
when browned, and pour gravy
over it and let it simmer for half
STUFFED LEG OF LAMB
Prepare a dressing by moistening
two cups of bread crumbs (from
inside of the loaf) with one-half
cup of melted butter. Season
with salt, pepper and thyme, or
sweet marjoram, with a little
onion, if desired. Add a very
little water and place in the meat,
skewering the ends into shape.
Have oven very hot and place
meat in pan, adding no seasoning
until the surface is seared over.
Then reduce the gas flame, dredge
meat lightly with flour and the
seasonings and baste the meat
every ten or fifteen minutes (un-
less a covered roasting pan is
used), and roast about an hour
and a half, if weighing five pounds.
Serve with a brown sauce made
from four tablespoons of flour and
the drippings in the pan, with a
pint of stock made by cooking the
bones in water very slowly until
it is well flavored.
Cook roll sausage whole in pan in
the oven, dredge with flour and
baste often. Cook twp pound
roll two hours. Serve hot or cold.
Sausage cakes or links, cook ih
pan in the oven.
Four pounds lean' beef chopped
flne; one-half pound uncooked
ham also chopped fine, one-half
cup stale bread crumbs, one tea-
spoon salt, one teaspoon onion
juice, one-half teaspoon pepper,
one-half teaspoon allspice, one-
half teaspdon cloves, grating of
nutmeg and one tablespoon chop-
ped parsley. Mix thoroughly and
place in bread pan or mold and
bake in a quick oven about one
and one-half hours, keeping it
covered until nearly done. Add
two beaten eggs to the mixture
to bind it together.
BEEF PIE WITH POTATO
Boil five large potatoes in salted
water. When done slice a layer
into a buttered baking dish, then
put in a layer of cold roast or
boiled beef or mutton, season
with salt, pepper and celery salt,
add a little stewed or raw tomato
if you have any left over. Then
add another layer of potatoes,
meat, etc., until dish is full.
Reserve enough potato to make
a cupfid when mashed. To these
add one tablespoon Cottolene,
and when cool, one well beaten
egg and whip until light. Then
work in enough flour — from one-
half to one cup — mixed with
one-half teaspoon salt and one
PURE FOOD RECIPES
teaspoon baking powder to make
a crust that will roll out into a thin
sheet. Make a gravy from scraps
of meat and bones and any left
over gravy and pour into the dish.
Cut slit in top of the crust for the
escape of steam, and bake in a
quick oven about thirty minutes.
Add a little onion to pie if you
CALF'S LIVER WITH CREAM
Slice the liver one-third inch
thick, scald and strip off the skin
on edges, or snip it several times
to prevent slices from curling.
Drain and cook till brown in hot
Cottolene, being careful not to
,bum it. Put the liver in a stew-
pan, and cook two sliced onions
in more Cottolene till yellow; add
to the liver, pour in cream to
cover, and simmer ten minutes,
closely covered. Add salt and
pepper to taste.
NEW ENGLAND BOILED
Remove the bone from a compact
cut of the round of corned beef
weighing about eight pounds, and
tie the meat as clos^y as possible;
put it in a deep pot, cover it with
cold water, add a teaspoon of salt
and half a saltspoon of pepper;
let it boil quickly, removing all
scum; when no more scum rises,
put with it the following vege-
tables, peeled and cut in slices
two inches thick. Two carrots,
four beets, four white turnips, and
one yellow turnip, six small onions
peeled so that they will remain
unbroken, and a large head of
celery cut in two-inch lengths.
Place the pot where its contents
will simmer slowly for two hours. .
A glass of wine or any table sauce
preferred, may be added before
the dish is finished. To serve it,
put the meat in the middle of a
platter, arrange the vegetables
around it, and pour a little of
the grav^ over it. More of the
gravy should be served in a small
boat, with a dish of boiled pota-
toes. The united flavor of the
meat and vegetables characterizes ~
the dish. The beets may be
boiled separately, without break-
ing the skin, if they are so pre-
For the crust
One pint flour, four tablespoons
Cottolene, one teaspoon salt, one
tablespoon sugar, two teaspoons
baking powder, one generous gill
Mix and roll the same as for
pie crust, except that this crust is
to be rolled only twice instead of
For the rest of the pie
Take three pints of any kind of
cold cooked meat, one quart
water or stock (the water in which
the bones have been boiled), two
tablespoons butter, one table-
spoon minced onion, one table-
spoon minced carrot, three table-
spoons^ flour, two teaspoons salt,
and one-third teaspoon pepper.
MEAT. POULTRY AND GAME
Cook the butter, carrot and
onion together for ten minutes,
take the vegetables from the
butter and put them in a stewpan
with the meat. Into the butter
remaining in the pan put one
tablespoon of the flour, and stir
until smooth and frothy. Grad-
ually add the stock or water to
this, stirring all the time. Cook
for five minutes, then pour upon
the meat, and set the stewpan on
the fire. Mix the remaining two
tablespoons of flour with half a
gill of cold water and stir into the
pan containing the meat and
gravy. Add the salt and pepper,
and cook for fifteen minutes;
then proceed as for chicken pie.
BOILED OR STEAMED TURKEY
Clean; rub well with pepper and
lemon juice, and stuff with oysters
or bread stuffing. It is better
without the stuffing, as the oys-
ters are usually overdone, and
the same flavor may be obtained
from an oyster sauce served with
the turkey. Truss the legs and
wings close to the body; pin the
fowl in a cloth to keep it whiter
and preserve the shape. Put
into boiling salted water. Allow
twenty minutes to the poutjd.
Cook slowly till tender, but not
long enough for it to fall apart.
Turkeys are much nicer steamed
than boiled. Serve with oyster,
celery or ^mon sauce. Garnish
with a border of boiled rice or
macaroni, and pour part of the
sauce over the fowl.
Fowls are sometimes stuffed
with boiled celery, cut into pieces
an inch long; or with macaroni
which has been boiled and sea-
soned with salt and pepper.
GRAVY FOR ROAST POULTRY
Put the giblets, or neck, liver,
gizzard and heart, on to boil in
one quart of water and boil till
tender, and the water reduced to '
one pint. Mash the liver, and if
desired, chop the gizzard, heart
and meat from the neck. Pour
off the clear fat from the dripping-
pan, and put the settlings into a
saucepan, rinse out the pan with
the water in which the giblets
were boiled, and pour this water,
into the saucepan and put on to
boil. ' Put three or four table-
spoons of the fat into a small fry-
ing pan, add enough dry flour to,
absorb all the fat, and when brown
add the giblet liquid gradually,
and stir, till it thickens, fatason
with salt and pepper. If not
smooth, strain it, pour half of it
into the gravy boat, and add the
chopped giblets to the remaining
half,' and serve separately, as all
may not care for the giblet gravy.
Cut Up the chicken as for fricassee,
wash carefully, cover with boil-
ing water, and let boil five min-
utes, and then place where it will
simmer until meat is very tender;
remove the meat from the bones
and put it into a bread pan or plain
PURE FOOD RECIPES
mold, the light and dark meat in
alternate layers. Return the
bones to the broth with the gristle
but not the skin, and let simmer
until broth is reduced to about a
cupful. A few slices of carrot
and onion, a stalk or root of celery
and leaves of parsley, bay or
sweet majoram or savory may be
cooked in the broth, then strained
out. Season With salt and pep-
per, allowing for meat- as well as
broth; pour the broth over the
meat, let it stand a short time to
settle down through the meat,
then cover meat with a board
bearing a weight and let stand in
a cold place over night. If meat
is cut in dice it makes a prettier
mold. The mold may be lined
with sliced, hard-boiled eggs, and
olives, if you want a "company"
Prepare young chickens for broil-
ing and spread lightly with soft
butter mixed with salt, pepper
and a little lemon juice. Cook
slowly for twenty minutes, bast-
ing and turning once, then in-
crease the heat and brown well.
Place on hot platter, spread with
soft butter, paprika and minced
parsley and serve. If chicken
be large it is well to do th.- last
pkrt of the cooking in the upper
Entrees and Meats
Frying — Immersing food in an ample quantity of fat so hot that the
instant the food is in it the outer surface "is crisped, its absorbent prop-
erties destroyed, its juices and flavors all retained, and it is thoroughly
cooked, while its outer surface is brown and dry, is what is truly meant
by "frying, ' ' and the product of this mode of frying is something deli-
cious to the epicure and wholesome for those who live plainly.
For frying, therefore, yo-u, must have your Cottolene very hot he-
jore the food is put in. Always test before you begin to cook your food.
Neither must you put too much food in at one time, or the Cottolene
will cool and your frying will be retarded and injured in quality. Put
it on in a cold pan and allow it to heat gradually; it will not sputter
nor smoke and reaches a cooking temperature quicker than lard. Drop
into the Cottolene a piece of bread ; if it browns in half a minute it is
ready for use. It is unequaled for frying doughnuts, fritters, vege-
tables, fish, oysters and croquettes; test by dropping in a piece of
dough. If it rises at once the fat is hot enough. Follow the direc-
tions about having it very hot, and your food will come out dry, crisp,
brown and delicate — no grease, no odor and no dyspepsia.
ENTRIES AND MEATS RECHAUFPf
SCALLOPED MEAT, FISH, OY-
Allow one cup of sauce, one cup
cracker crumbs moistened in one-
fourth cup Cottolene, for two cups
of meat or fish or any of the mix-
tures given below. Line the
deep baking dish with one-fourth
of the crumbs, add a layer of mix-
ture, a layer of sauce, one-fourth
of crumbs, another layer of each
and cover with the remaining
half of the crumbs. Bake till
crumbs are brown. Oysters may
be used alone, with their juice
and the crumbs. Some of the
favorite combinations are as fol-
Mutton : Oysters, macaroni,
and white or tomato sauce.
Chicken: Rice, oysters or cel-
ery, and white sauce. '
Beef: Onions, diced potatoes
and brown gravy or sauce.
Veal : StuflSng, rice, turnip and
Ham: Mustard, hard eggs,
Fish : Onions, pickles, tomato
Oysters: Celery, bacon and
(See pages 41 to 43 for sauces)
In this, as in all warmed-over
dishes of meat or fish, discard
anything uneatable, and cut
meat in half -inch bits ; if very
tough stew it first, for the oven
cooking will not always make
Chop together four cold pota-
toes, two small onions and one
green pepper ; then add one cup
cold roast meat (any kind) and
one cup canned tomatoes. Season
with pepper and salt and three
drops of tabasco sauce ; add one
egg well beaten. Drop mixture
by spoonful into muffin pans.
Bake in hot oven and serve with
Chop fine any kind of cooked
meat or fish. If short of material,
add mashed potatoes, or rice, to
beef, mutton or fish; - and to
chicken, fish, oysters, or veal,
add soft bread crumbs, or rice.
Moisten light meats with thick
white sauce (see page 42), equal
amount, and dark meats with
tomato (see page 43), or brown
sauce (see page 42), made quite
thick. Season with salt and
pepper and onion juice if liked.
When very cold, shape the mix-
ture into balls or cylinders; roll
first in sifted bread crumbs, then
beaten egg diluted with one table- .
spoon milk, then crumbs again.
Fry one minute in deep Cottolene,
hot enough to brown a bit of bread
while you count forty. Use a
basket, and cook only four at a
time. Drain on paper, and be
sure that the fat is hot for each
frying. Serve plain, or with
sauce like that in the mixture,
PURE FOOD RECIPES
Break onei-fourth pound macaroni
into one-half inch pieces and boil
rapidly in plenty of boiling §alted
water for about twenty-five min-
utes or until tender, then throw
into cold water for five minutes
to blanch. Scald one cup milk
in double boiler. Rub together
two tablespoons Cottolene and
four of flour and add to the milk
and stir until it thickens. Add
the yolk of one egg ; stir a minute
and then remove from the fire
and add one tablespoon Parmesan
cheese, salt and cayenne to taste.
Mix and let get perfectly cold.
Then form into croquettes, cylin-
der shape, dip in beaten egg and
bread crumbs and fry in deep hot
Cottolene until a nice brown.
Make a sauce with four table-
spoons of butter, six of flour and
one cup milk, season with salt,
pepper, parsley and lemon juice.
Add one pint cut chicken, spread
on platter to cool. When cool,
'shape into cutlets or croquettes,
roll in bread crumbs, beaten eggs
and crumbs again and fry in hot
fat, preferably Cottolene. Serve
with Bechamel or mushroom sauce
or French peas.
Mushroom sauce is made by
adding one tablespoon of lemon
juice to one cup cream sauce and
one-half cup cooked mushrooms
cut in piece^s, or brown sauce may
be used instead of white.
Bechamel sauce is made like
white sauce, with clear stock and
cream instead of milk, and is
highly seasoned. One whole egg
or two beaten yolks are added
just before serving. ,
Season hot boiled rice, cooked
very soft, with salt, pepper, butter
and grated cheese; and to one
pint of rice, add yolks two eggs
weir beaten. Mix well and shape
when cool in balls , or ovals.
Qrumb-egg-and-crumb, and fry
The juices that flow from rare cooked meats are the best sauce for
them; but do not try to make them go farther by pouring hot water
over the meat as it is carved. A steak cooked to a turn needs only
salt ; it may have butter if it has but little fat ; lamb chops need only
salt, but many like to add a little lenion juice, or minced parsley, or
tomato sauce, to both meats, and also to many other broiled meats,
like chicken, tripe, etc. Apple sauce should be served with pork,,
duck and goose; cranberry sauce seems to belong to turkey and roast
SAUCES FOR MEATS. ETC.
chicken. Oily fish broiled needs but little butter, but salt and lemon
juice may be used generously. White fish, like halibut, cod, etc.,
needs rich white sauce flavored with egg, lemon and onion. \
There is a common philosophy in making sauces. Remember
that two level tablespoons of butter or Cottolene mixed with two level
tablespoons of flour will thicken each half pint of liquid.
For a white sauce rub the fat and flour together and add' a half
pint of milk; stir until boiling.
For a tomato sauce rub the fat and flour together and add a half
pint of nicely seasoned strained tomatoes.
For a brown sauce, use half a pint of stock.
For English drawn butter, rub the fat and flour together and add a
half pint of boiling water; stir until boiling, then add a .seasoning of
salt and pepper and stir in, at last, an extra tablespoon of butter. .
The seasonings, of course, will vary, but each sauce will require
a saltspoon of pepper and half teaspoon of salt. By remembering
the proportions one may make a dozen sauces in a very few minutes
and have them all smooth and palatable.
For White Meats, and Soups, Fish,
Vegetables, Eggs, Toast, or
In a granite saucepan, ./melt and
mix one rounded tablespoon each
of butter or Cottolene and flour,
and from one-fourth to one-half
level teaspoon salt. Add grad-
ually one cup of hot water, or
milk, or cream, or stock from
oysters, whitefish, or meats. Stir
Nothing more is needed, but dip
toast in hot milk if liked soft.
For Meat and Fish
Add lemon juice, cayenne, capers,
bits of oysters, lobsters, or cooked
celery, and a few drops of onion
juice; or cook one rounded tea-
spoon minced onion, or celery, or
green pepper, or bit of bay leaf.
in the butter before adding flour.
Add pepper, or minced sweet
pepper, or parsley, and to cauli-
flower, and a few others, add
grated cheese, or lemon juice.
For White Soups
Add a bit of bay leaf, one-fourth
teaspoon mixed whole spice or
parsley, one rounded tablespoon
onion, or sweet pepper, or grated
For Picked-up Codfish or Chipped
Make the plain white sauce
(above) with milk, and add one
beaten egg just before serving.
FOR RICH WHITE SAUCE
Use cream or rich white stock
(make as per white sauce) and
just before serving stir in one,
beaten egg yolk, or two hard
boiled eggs chopped or sifted.
PURE FOOD RECIPES
FOR THICK WHITE SAUCE,
Make as for white sauce, but
•double the flour; or use cream
with one level tablespoon butter,
and one heaped tablespoon corn-
FOR PUDDING SAUCE
Make white sauce (see page 41)
using one and one-half cups of
■hot water, add when smooth one
•and one-half cups of brown, or
maple, or"granvdated sugar; fla-
vor with one tablespoon lemon
juice, or vinegar, or wine, or a
little spice, and just before serv-
ing stir in another rounded table-
spoon of butter and yolk of one
•egg, if you wish it richer.
We call this brown gravy when
•made in the roasting pan from
"the fat or dripping of meat with
simple seasoning of salt and pep-
per; and brown sauce when we
make it in a frying pan with
butter and brown stock, and sea-
son highly. But the principle
is the same, and the way to avoid
"the pale, greasy, or curdled mix-
"ture so often served, is to use the
Tight proportions of flour and fat
■and cook them till well browned ,
before adding the liquid. You
cannot brown flour ' and water,
until most of the water is boiled
■out, but you can brown flour and
fat very quickly; and flour will
only absorb about its bulk of fat.
For gravy, make it as direcljed
under Roast Meat.
For special dishes, when the
baking pan has not furnished the
starting point of glaze and
browned ^fat, melt in an iron pan
one rounded tablespoon of butter,
or Cottolene, or any fat of meat
you are preparing ; let it brown,
add one rounded tablespoon flour
or cornstarch, stir till very brown
(it will be lighter when wet),
add gradually one cup of hot
stock (th^at made from stewing
trimmings of meat you are cook-
ing will answer, instead of using
nice cleared stock prepared for
soup). Add more hot water if
too thick, boil down if too thin;
season with salt, pepper and lemon
juice, and add mushrooms, catsup,
horseradish, currant jelly, or any
other condiment which will, blend
with the meat. The main points
are to have it brown, smooth,'
free from grease, and savory.
Put a half pint of milk or cream
in a double boiler. Rub together
a tablespoon of Cottolene and an
even tablespoon of flour; then
stir them into the boiling milk,
add one ounce of young horse-
radish, finely grated, a half tea-
spoon of salt and a half teaspoon
of sugar. This is exceedingly
nice to serve with boiled, fresh or
Beat three tablespoons butter or
two of Cottolene to a cream, then
add one tablespoon lemon juice,
one tablespoon minced parsley.
one-half teaspoon salt. Beat all
the ingredients into the butter
and it is ready to use. If in-
tended for potato balls, use less
For Chops, Fish, Macaroni, etc.
Cook one rounded tablespoon
minced onion in one tablespoon
Cottolene till only slightly col-
ored; add, if liked, the same
amount of minced sweet pepper,
celery or parsley, carrot or turnip ;
stir in one rounded tablespoon
flour, and one^fourth level tea-
spoon salt; add gradually from
one to one and one-half cups-
strained hot tomato, or any left-
over stewed tomato if unsweet-
ened. Strain before serving, if
desired smooth. This is espec-
ially suitable for veal chops, fish,,
macaroni and many dishes of
Mrs. Helen Armstrongr, Teacher of Cook-
ery, says: "Haying used Cottolene con-
stantly for over five years, both as
shortening; and for frying purposes, 1 feel
no hesitancy in recommending it as a very
superior article. It is not only much more
vtrholesome than lard, but produces more
Meats carefully cooked are, no doubt, more easily digested than some
vegetables, but, on the other hand, vegetables are clean and wholesome.
Vegetable foods are concentrated and slow of digestion; hence, the
vegetarian eats but two meals a day, and on these two meals, if his
diet is well selected, he receives more nourishment than the meat
eater from his three meals a day. In selecting a vegetarian diet, choose
nitrogenous vegetables to take the place of meat; with a meat diet
select green and starchy vegetables to fill in the vacancies of a nitrog-
enous diet. With beef we serve potatoes. With poultry, rice, or (in
chestnut season) boiled chestnuts or macaroni, or hominy or white
All green vegetables are put on to cook in boiling water. Add
salt to the water in which green or top ground vegetables are cooked;
white or underground vegetables are better when the salt is added
after the cooking. Wash rice through one or two watery before boiling.
Soak dried fruits over night.
Cabbage, cauliflower, onions and turnips, vegetables containing
volatile oil, must be boiled rapidly in an uncovered vessel, or they will
emit unpleasant odors.
Medium sized onions should be boiled in salt water one hour.
Green com in salted water five minutes.
Peas in salted water twenty minutes.
Asparagus in salted water thirty minutes.
PURE FOOD RECIPES
Whole head of cabbage in salted water one and a half hours.
Chopped cabbage in salted water twenty minutes.
Cauliflower in salted water thirty minutes.
Carrots, turnips and the roots of plants in unsalted water one hour.
If they are cut in dice, twenty minutes.
Young lima beans in salted water forty minutes.
Young beets in unsalted water thirty minutes.. Old beets two
to three hours.
Potatoes in unsalted water until you can pierce them with f fork,
Spinach-and greens in unsalted water fifteen to twenty minutes.
Wash, scrub and trim, cook in hot
oven, about forty minutes, or till
soft when pressed.
No. 2. Pare and bake about
one hour with meat; basting with
Wo. 3. Pare, slice thin and
arrange in deep dish, with layers
of cheese, or minced celery, or
clams, or shredded fish or meat;
season with salt, pepper, or minced
sweet pepper, or parsley; dot
with bits of Cottolene or butter,
or crisp fried bacon, salt pork or
veal suet, and moisten with milk,
or stock, or thin white sauce, or
layers of sliced or stewed toma-
toes to cover. Add a crust of
buttered cracker crumbs, if you
wish, and bake slowly two or
three hours. If baked without
the crust, stir them up from bot-
tom twice during baking.
No. I. Slice thick or thin,
and brown on eac^h side in hot
Cottolene, salt and serve.
No. 2. Cook minced onion,
celery, or sweet pepper, in butter
till yellow, add potatoes cut small,
and toss about till hot, add a little
milk or stock to moisten, and salt
and pepper to taste. Vary it by
browning it slightly, or adding
minced parsley, or grated cheese.
,Pare, shave in very thin slices, or
cut in straws, or half inch strips,
or dice, or tiny balls, or crescents.
Soak in cold water, drain dry on
napkin and cook a few at a time
in basket in deep, hot Cottolene.
Drain and season with salt.
RAW POTATO HASH
Chop one pint of pared potatoes
till in quarter inch bits. Soak
five minutes and drain; put into
the frying pan eno,ugh Cottolene
to grease the bottom, add pota-
toes, one tablespoon vinegar, or
stock, or corn beef liquor, one-
half teaspoon salt and dash of
pepper, cover tightly and cook
very slowly, on back of stove, till
tender, from fifteen to twenty-
five minutes. Bring forward, let
it brown till crisp underneath,
^ fold over and turn out. Cook
chopped onion, or sweet pepper,
or celery, with it to give variety.
SUGARED SWEET POTATOES
Cook in boiling water, peel, slice
lengthwise and put in baking
dish with sprinkling of sugar,
cinnamon, salt, and bits of butter ;
add water to half cover, and_,bake
till brown, basting often.
POTATOES AU GRATIH
Have ready one pint of cold
boiled potatoes cut into dice.
Make a cream sauce with two
level tablespoons butter, two level
tablespoons flour, and one cup
milk. Season with one-half tea-
spoon salt, and dash of pepper.
Add one-half to three-fourths
cup of rich, yellow cheese shaved
fine, and stir over hot water until
cheese is dissolved. Put alter-
nate layers of the sauce and pota-
toes in a baking dish and cover
the top layer of sauce" with but-
tered bread crumbs. Brown in
Peel and slice thin into cold
water Drain well, and dry in a
towel. Fry a few at a time in
hot Cottolene. Salt as you take
them out, and lay them on coarse
brown paper for a short time.
They are very nice cold for lunch,
or to take to picnics.
POTATOES a la MAITRE
Boil one pint of potato balls, cut
with a vegetable cutter. Boil in
salted water about ten minutes,
drain and pour over them one-
half pint hot milk, and, when the
milk is partly absorbed, stir in
quickly one egg yolk, beaten to a
cream, with two tablespoons of
butter, one tablespoon lemon
juice, one tablespoon minced
parsley, one-half teaspoon salt and
pinch of paprika. Serve as soon
as the sauce thickens.
Wipe, scald, peel, cut in halves,
lay on a wire broiler, and when
hot add a bit of butter, pepper and
salt and serve when brown, or
sprinkle with buttered crumbs
Cut in halves, lay them in but-
tered pan, dust with buttered
crumbs, and bake till brown.
Peel, cut small, cook quickly,
chopping as they cook ; when soft
and no distinct bits of pulp vis-
ible, add one-fourth cup sugar,
(unless preferred not sweet) two
tablespoons butter, one-half tea-
spoon salt, and one-eighth tea-
spoon pepper Add also a slice
of onion, or green pepper, if liked.
Cook five minutes longer and
Shell, rinse quickly, cook in
small amount of boiling water,
letting it nearly boil out before
serving; season as for beans, or
with white sauce. (Seepage 41.)
PURE FOOD RECIPES
Canned Peas. Turn into
strainer, rinse in several waters
to remove can water, heat quickly
in saucepan, season as for fresh
Use fresh, tender, yellow or green
beans. Remove strings and ends,
cut in slanting slivers; to one pint
of beans, put into a stew-pan one
level tablespoon butter, one-half
level teaspoon salt, a dash of nut-
meg, and pepper; add beans,
lifting them from the pan with
only the , water that clings to
them; cover tightly, and cook
very, very slowly, about one hour,
or till tender. Their own juice,
with just heat enough to tumjt
into steam, will cook them ; but,
if cooked too fast, and they begin
to sizzle, add one or two table-
spoons of water. Turn out when
tender with no further seasoning.
GREEN OR SHELLED BEANS
Shell, wash, cook in boiling water
five minutes, pour off, adding
first, to the strong varieties that
turn dark in cooking, one-fourth
teaspoon soda; rinse, add more
boiling water, and cook until
soft, adding water as needed to
have enough left to moisten well.
Mash a few and season with salt,
a bit of sugar, pepper and one
tablespoon butter; and stir this
into the water, boil for a moment
1 and serve.
No. 2. Add to the cooked
beans an equal amount of raw or
boiled sweet com scraped from
cob, season in proportion, cook
five minutes, and serve as succo-
Dried Lima or other Beans:
Soak twelve hours in cold water;
slip off the skin if it comes off
easily, then cook the same as
fresh beans till tender, and season.
The noon before, pick over and
soak one quart of pea beans
(small white) in cold water. Next
morning add fresh water and let
them simmer (not boil) till
slightly soft but not broken.
Skim them out into an earthen
pot having bulging sides, a
narrow top and a cover. Cut one
onion in quarters, and put por-
tions of it in with the beans.
Cut rind of one pound of fat salt
pork (with a streak of lean)
down for one inch — and, a half
inch apart, imbed it with the
beans, leaving the rind up. Mix
one level teaspoon each of
mustard, salt and brown sugar,
and two tablespoons of molasses,
fill the cup with boiling water,
pour it over the beans, add
enough more to fill the pot.
Bake slowly six to eight or ten
hours. As water boils out add
more, then when out again, let
the beans cook until you hear
them sizzle; this will indicate
that water is low, and the fat is
beginning to cook on the edge of
the pot. Let it do so for a while,
for this gives a rich color and
flavor, better than that obtained
by an excess of molasses, and
hardens the beans slightly, so
they will not be mushy, although
soft. Then lift the pork up on
top and add water just to show
above the beans, and keep it so
during the remainder of the
These specific directions are
for the benefit of persons outside
of New England, who seldom
find or prepare beans as they are
served in that land where they
have an honored place on many
tables. If you do not care to use
pork, use Cottolene — one-half
cup, or fat corned beef.
When warmipg them over,
melt some of the pork in a small
pan, add the beans and let them
cook, without stirring, till warm
or slightly browned; or brown
them in Cottolene. These are
more palatable than when
warmed in water, unless you wish
to make bean puree or soup.
This we learn from the Mexican
way of cooking beans.
GREEKS, SPINACH, ETC.
Pick over, trim, wash in five
waters, drain, put into kettle
with water that drips from them;
cook slowly at first till juice is
drawn out; then quickly till
tender; drain, rinse if you dislike
the strong flavor, chop, reheat,
season with butter, salt and pep-
per; add cream if you like, or
serve with lemon or vinegar. If
for a course, garnish with hard,
boiled eggs; or serve cold as a
RED CABBAGE, ONIONS, SUM-
Cut either of these vegetables into
slivers and cook the same as string
beans using a bit of onion in
place of nutmeg with the red
cabbage, and adding one teaspoon
vinegar just before serving. To
the carrots, add one-half teaspoon
sugar, and one teaspoon lemon
juice; and to the onion, add a
little milk or cream.
Wash with care not to break skin
and make them bleed. Cook in
boiling water till tender, about
one hour. Plunge into cold water
and rub off skins. Chop coarsely,
heat again, season with butter,
salt and pepper; or slice thin and
cover with vinegar. Butter will
not blend easily with beets unless
they are chopped. Winter beets
require three hours' cooking.
Scrub, scrape or pare, divide
lengthwise in quarters, cut off
from the sharp edge all the woody
fibre which runs through the
center; slice in half -inch bits, and
cook quickly in boiling water,
about fifteen minutes or till soft.
Drain, mash with a four-pronged
fork to break up all the fibre;
add salt, pepper and butter and
serve plain ; or shape in flat cakes,
flour slightly, and brown in a
little hot Cottolene. By remov-
ing the pithy center the parsnips
are more easily digested.
PURE FOOD RECIPES
Slice half inch thick, pare, cut
again in cubes, cook in boiling
water till soft, drain, serve in
white sauce (see page 41), or
mash and season generously with
salt, and with butter and pepper.
Chop sufficient cabbage to make
two quarts. Cover it with cold
water, soak one hour, drain, cover
with boiling water, add a tea-
spoon of salt, boil in an uncovered
saucepan twenty minutes, drain
again. Rub together one table-
spoon of butter and one of flour,
add a half pint of milk, stir until
boiling, add a teaspoon of salt, a
saltspoon of pepper; add the
cabbage, heat carefiilly and serve.
CAULIFLOWER AU GRATIN
Trim oS the outside leaves of a
nice, fresh cauliflower, tie it up
in a piece of cheese cloth, and put
it into well-salted boiling water; .
boil for twenty or thirty minutes.
Be careful to take it out as soon
as tender, or it will fall into pieces.
Drain and separate the head into
the little flowerets. Put in bak-
ing dish, pour over cream sauce,
sprinkle thickly with grated cheese
and brown in a quick oven.
Wash, trim off tough ends, tie
in bundle, cook in boiling slightly
salted water, twenty minutes or
till tender. Moisten toast with
the water, spread with butter,
lay a few stalks on each slice, add
butter and salt and serve hot as a
course; or as the main part of a
meal when you do not wish meat.
No. 2. (3ook only about three
inches of the tip and serve cold
as a salad. Cut the remainder
into inch bits, boil, mash, sift and
use for cream soup.
Celery (the outer stalks divided
once), cucumbers (pared and
quartered lengthwise), leeks (free
from tips and rootlets) may each
be cooked, seasoned and served in
the same way as asparagus.
For the family in moderate circumstances, or the woman who does all
the work of the house, it is unwise to have soup every day, for it makes
unnecessary labor in changing for so many courses, and compels some
one to look out that the next course is served hot. Better utilize the
usual soup material in a stew, or some kind of made-over dish, which
may serve as the chief dish of the meal. When dinner is served at
noon, broths and soups may be served at the supper, giving the warmth
and stimulation often desired but too often supplied by a second or
third meal of hearty meat. They are equally good for breakfast,
especially for children who do not usually take the liquid food needed
then, which others have in coffee, etc.
VEGETABLE CREAM SOUPS
Prepare the vegetable; cook po-
tatoes, cauliflower or artichokes
in boiling water and discard water ;
cook others in cold water, let it
cook nearly all out; mash, press
through sieve, add white sauce
(one cup to each pint of pulp and
water for most fresh green vege-
tables, also for canned vegetables;
and one pint of sauce for each
pint of pulp from spinach, toma-
toes and other succulent vege-
tables). Season with salt and
pepper; dilute with hot milk if
too thick; add beaten egg, or
more pulp if too thin. Serve
with toasted crackers.
CREAM OF CELERY SOUP
One quart chicken or veal broth,
one quart milk, one-half cup rice,
one teaspoon salt, one head
Use for this soup a quart of
chicken or veal broth and about
a quart of milk; pick over and
wash the rice, rinse it well in cold
water, and put it in a thick sauce-
pan over the fire, with a pint of
milk and a teaspoon of salt;
wash a head of celery and grate
the white stalks, letting the grated
celery fall into milk enough to
cover it, put the grated celery
with the rice, and gently simmer
them together until the rice is
tender enough to rub through a
sieve with a potato masher, add-
ing more milk if the rice absorbs
what has first been put with it.
After the rice has been rubbed
through the sieve, return it to the
saucepan, place it again over the
fire, and gradually stir with it the
quart of stock or broth; if this
quantity of stock does not dilute
the soup to a creamy consistency, '
add a little milk; let the soup get
scalding hot, -season it palatably
with salt, white pepper, and a
very little grated nutmeg, and
serve at once.
CREAM OF TOMATO SOUP
One quart milk, one pint canned
tomatoes, or one pint stewed
tomatoes, three teaspoons Cotto-
lene, one bay leaf, sprig of parsley,
blade of mace, one teaspoon sugar,
one-quarter teaspoon baking soda,
two tablespoons fiour.
Put the tomatoes on to stew
with the bay leaf, parsley and
mace; let them stew fifteen
minutes. Put the milk on to beil
in a farina boiler. Rub Cotto-
lene and flour together; add to'
the milk when boiling, and stir
constantly until it thickens. Now
press the tomatoes. thr»ugh a
sieve, and if ready to use the soup,
add the sugar and soda to' the
tomatoes, and then the boiling
milk. Stir and serve at once. It
must not ga on the fire after mix-
ing the milk with the tomatoes, or
PURE FOOD RECIPES
it will separate. If you are not
ready, let them stand on the fire
separately and mix them when
CREAM SOUPS WITH STOCK
For each pint of water in which
chicken, veal, or fish have been
boiled, or of pulp of vegetables,
allow one cup of thick white
sauce made with cream. Com-
bine, season, and serve plain, or
with sifted egg yolk, minced
parsley, or pepper, or the chief
ingredient of the soup — like
minced white meat in chicken
soup, or oysters parboiled and
rubbed through sieve for that
Four pounds of beef, one ounce
suet, one small onion, three
quarts cold water, four Cloves,
one small carrot, a piece of celery,
one egg white.
Cut into dice four pounds of
lean beef from the round; put
about one ounce of suet and one
small onion — sliced, into the soup
kettle and cook until a good
brown; then add the meat,
cook without covering thirty
minutes; add the cold water,
cover the kettle and simmer gent-
ly for about three hours; at the
end of this tinie add the cloves,
carrots, a piece of celery, and
simmer one hour longer. Strain
and stand away to cool. When
cold, remove all grease from the
surface. Turn the consomm^ in-
to a kettle ; beat the white of an
egg with a half cup of cold water,
add it to the boiling consomme,
boil one minute and strain through
cheese cloth. Season, and it is
ready to serve. If wanted dark,
add a teaspoon of caramel.
One large egg, generous one-half
cup flour, two quarts boiling
water, three pints milk, three
tablespoons flour, onion, mace, '
salt and pepper.
To make the noodles, break the
egg into a bowl and beat into it a
little more than half a cup of
flour and one-fourth of a teaspoon
of salt. Now work this dough
with the hands until it bepomes
smooth and like putty. Sprinkle
a molding-board with flour, and
roll the dough as thin as possible.
It should be like a wafer. Let it
lie upon the board for five min-
utes, then roll it up loosely, and
with a sharp knife cut into slices
about one-third of an inch thick.
Spread these little pieces on the
board, and let them dry for half
an hour or more. Put on the
stove a large saucepan contain-
ing two quarts of boiling water.
Add a tablespoon of salt, and,
after turning the noodles into the
water, cook them rapidly for
twenty-five minutes. Turn into
a colander and drain.
To make the soup, use three
pints of milk, three tablespoons
of flour, one slice of onion, a bit
of mace, two teaspoons of salt,
and one-third of a teaspoon of
SALADS. SANDWICHES, ETC.
Reserve half a cup of milk, and
put the rest, with the onion and
mace, on the stove in a double
boiler. Mix the flour and cold
milk, and stir the mixture into the
boiling milk. Add the salt and
pepper, and cook for fifteen min-
utes. At the end of that time
take out the mace and onion and
add the noodles. Five minutes'
cooking will complete the work.
Peel and cut in dice five good
sized potatoes. Throw into cold
water. Cut quarter of a pound
of ham in shreds and chop a
medium sized onion coarsely.
Pry ham and onion together until
nicely browned. Mince a table-
spoon of parsley. Drain water
from the potatoes and put in a
layer of potato dice in the bottom
of a stewing kettle, then a sprinkle
of the ham, onion and parsley.
Then more potato dice, and so on
until all is used. Cover with cold
water and let come slowly to boil-
ing point. Cook until the pota-
toes are tender but not done
enough to lose their shape. Add
a pint of good, rich milk and sea-
son to taste with salt and pepper.
Rub to a smooth paste two level
tablespoons of butter and two
of flour. When the chowder
boils up, stir in the thickening
and continue to stir gently until
it boils again, then serve at once.
Serve a portion of fresh green vegetable, or ripe fruit, with every
dinner if possible and dress it simply, always in this order (for if lettuce
is wet first with the acid, the oil will not adhere) ; with salt to make it
savory; pepper or other spice to make it bright ; oil, cream or butter,
to make it smooth and more nutritious, by suppljring the fatty element
lacking in the vegetable; and lemon juice or vinegar to give piquancy
to the combination. Many like to add a bit of sugar to lessen the
Fruit salads may precede a dinner or luncheon in warm weather,
or follow as a dessert at any time; or be served with supper. When
they are served first, they are dressed with sugar.
Celery, cucumbers, lettuce, rad-
ishes. To prepare the uncooked
vegetables for salad, pick over.
discard bruised portions, look
out for insects by washing each
leaf or stalk thoroughly, drain and
pile in order on a wet towel, tie
and lay on the ice or where they
PURE FOOD RECIPES
will be cold; they will keep crisp
for several days. Do not scrape
celery till ready for the table.
Pare cucumbers and let them
stand in ice-water half an hour.
Or, pare, but slice just before
serving. Put the whole pared
cucumber on a shallow dish,
cut in very thin and even slices,
but keep them together as if
whole, and pour French dressing
over them. Or let each person
dress them to his own liking.
Arrange lettuce in a deep bowl,
large dark leaves outside, and so
on, with the light colored and
small ones in center, as if half
opened. Celery looks best in an
upright glass with its delicate
tips opening out like a flower.
The poorer stalks may be cut in
three inch lengths. With radishes,
cut skin in petal-like divisions.
Scald and peel large ripe toma-
tees, cut in halves or slices and
serve very cold; to be dressed to
taste. Or scoop out the centers,
making cups to be filled with the
scooped-out portion, mixed with
dice of cucumber, celery, or sweet
pepper , nuts or cheese , and dressed ;
or, cut the firm pulp, from the
bottom part way down to the
stem, in petal-shaped strips, turn,
them partly back like an opened
tulip and serve in a lettuce cup.
Use any dressing you prefer, from
your own estimate of sugar, salt,
pepper and lemon, on through
the French, the boiled and the
sour cream dressings to the rich
mayonnaise. They are all good,
and blend perfectly with the
tomato. When fresh tomatoes
are not at hand, use the canned.
Scrub small new potatoes, or
smallest of old ones of the waxy
variety. Boil them tender but
not long enough to break easily.
Peel while hot and cut in dice and
mix with an equal amount of
cucumber dice. Dress with little
oil, vinegar, salt, pepper and
onion juice and let stand fifteen
minutes. Then mix with a boiled
or bottled salad dressing, turn into
a , dish lined with lettuce and
sprinkle minced paVsley over the
top and serve.
LETTUCE WITH PLAIN CREAM
Pile the largest leaves not suit-
able for decorating, slice through
into shreds with a sharp knife.
Toss about in the bowl and sprinkle
with salt, powdered sugar, cream
and lemon juice, and serve at
This is one of the daintiest of
Shave the cabbage on a slaw
cutter in a pan of very cold water ;
let it soak for one hour, then press
it dry, put it in a towel and wring
dry. Heap in the salad bowl; at
serving time at the table, dust it
first with a teaspoon of salt, then
a little pepper; sprinkle over a
little mint sauce and six table-
SALADS. SANDWICHES. ETC.
Spoons of olive oil. With a fork
and spoon toss thoroughly until
every part of the cabbage is
covered with seasoning and oil.
Put over two tablespoons of tarra-
goil vinegar, mix thoroughly and
Allow about equal parts of cold
boiled chicken or fowl, cut in
small cubes, and celery cut in
thin slices. Blend with a little
mayonnaise dressing, make it
into a mound on a pl§.tter, cover
with mayonnaise, or the boiled
cream dressing if you do not like
oU; garnish with the celery tips,
a few capers, or minced parsley,
or with a border of alternate slices
of tomato and cucumber. Do
not use tomato and beet together
in any salad.
If you have no ' 'mixer" you can
make a perfect dressing in the
following manner :
Beat two raw egg yolks ; add one-
half teaspoon salt and scant one-
half teaspoon paprika and beat
again; add four tablespoons apid,
a little at a time, and beat thor-
oughly. The acid may be lemon
juice or vinegar, or both in equal
proportions. Add one teaspoon
olive oil, put in an egg beater and
beat oil in thoroughly; add oil,
about one teaspoon at a time
for several times, then in larger
quantities, beating vigorously.
Add one pint of oil to the two
eggs. Vigorous and long beat-
ing is absolutely necessary in
order to avoid the danger of
mayonnaise separating or ' ' curdl-
ing. ' '
To improve mayonnaise: To
one-half cup mayonnaise salad
dressing add one heaping teaspoon
peanut butter, thoroughly mixed
in a small quantity at a time. It
gives a richer flavor.
DRESSING FOR COLD SLAW
Mix one rounded tablespoon sugajr,
one-half level teaspoon, each salt
and mustard, one-fourth level
teaspoon pepper and one level
teaspoon flour. Melt one level
tablespoon Cottolene in saucepan,
stir in the di;y mixture and add
gradually one-half cup hot vine-
gar. When thick and smooth,
add quickly one beaten egg ; cook
a moment longer and pour it hot
into one pint shaved red cabbage
and serve at once, hot or cold.
Use this dressing also for any
mixed salad of cold vegetables.
(Mrs. Lincoln) '
Mix at the table in a small cup or
bowl with a lip, one-fourth level
teaspoon salt, a few shakes of
paprika, or white pepper, three
tablespoons of olive oil, or choice
cottonseed oil, and one tablespoon
of lemon juice or vinegar. Stir
till the vinegar blends with the
oil, and pour it over the salad.
If mustard is desired, add it with
the salt. Add also a few drops
of onion juice. Use this to season
or marinade flsh and meat salads
PURE FOOD RECIPES
before adding the richer dress-
ings, and also on most of the sim-
ple dinner salads. The same
materials added one at a time to
the salad are never as smooth and
bland as when made into an
emidsion as above, and poured
on to the salad.
FRUIT AND NUT SALADS
Mix one cup each of freshly sliced
apple and celery and one-half
cup crumbled pecans or walnuts.
Dress with cooked or mayonnaise
dressing and serve with lettuce;
garnish with one-fourth of a red
unpared apple, cut in thin cres-
No. 2. Mix equal parts of
orange pulp, diced banana, pine-
apple and peeled Malaga grapes,
and serve in lettuce cups with
French or with sweet dressing.
No. 3. Serve halved peeled
peaches with slivers of sweet
almond ^nd whipped cream fla-
vored with lemon and sugar in
nest of lettuce. ~
No. 4. Serve sweet juicy pears
sliced, with sliced ginger and sour
No. 5. Combine oranges with
chestnuts (boiled) and bananas;
or cherries with strawberries and
pineapple; or serve either alone
with French dressing.
Mix cream cheese with chopped
nuts and minced parsley, make
into balls and serve in nest made
of shredded lettuce. Or, fill the
hollow parts of celery stalks with
cream cheese, mixed with chopped
nuts, a dash of onion, or sweet
pepper, and moistened with a
little mayonnaise. Heap it high
in about two to three inches of
the stalk. Or, pass grated Edam
or other dry cheese with a plain
lettuce salad, as there may be
some who would not eat the
lettuce with cheese.
Wash dates in tepid water, dry
and stone them, remove scales
and the iijner skin near stone,
if it be tough; add an equal
amount of finely chopped wal-
nuts, and moisten with soft but-
ter or cream, till it can be spread
on slices of bread. Cover, press
together and cut in triangles.
Combine figs and pecans, or rais-
ins and almonds in the same way.
Mince hard eggs very fine, mix
with minceji olives or cress, or
parsley; moisten with softened
butter or mayonnaise; season to
taste and spread between sliced
bread. Or combine yolks with
an equal amount of potted ham.
CHEAM CHEESE SANDWICHES
Cut thin rounds of rye bread, add
enough rich cream to cream cheese
to enable you to whip to a con-
sistency to spread nicely, adding
enough English mustard to make
a golden color and flavor nicely.
Spread inch thick on the bread.
Grate over it a quarter of an inch
of cold boiled ham. Place a few
SALADS, SANDWICHES, ETC.
shreds of olives over this and
serve very cold and fresh. Double
cream whipped very dry and stiff
may be used instead of the cream
PEANUT AND OLIVE SAND-
^ One-half box peanut butter, one
dozen olives, stoned and minced.
Season with lemon juice and salt.
Beat one egg, add one cup of milk,
dip in it six or eight sandwiches
ruade with cheese grated, and
placed between buttered bread.
Press slices firmly; brown them
in hot Cottolene on e^ch side in
These are small portions of bread
covered with simple or compound
mixtures of fish, meat, eggs,
cheese, etc., seasoned highly, and
served as a first course, to tempt
the jaded appetite.
Cut either white, graham, rye
or brown bread in one-fourth
inch slices, and then in oblongs,
triangles, rings, circles, crescents
or diamond shape. Butter and
brown in the oven, or isaut^ in
Cottolene, or fry in deep fat.
Cover with either of the following
combinations, and arrange on
individual plates on a doily, or
on a large shallow dish, slightly
overlapping, or in any attractive
combination of color and shape.
The following are some accept-
No. I. Equal portions of
mashed sardines and hard yolks,
^ season with lemon juice ; pile it in
center of bread with minced whites
around it and lay slivers of pickle
No, 2. spread with French
mustard, grated cheese, and a thin
slice of pimola, or a border of
chopped green pepper.
No. 3. ' Creamed butter, minced
watercress, lemon juice, and
minced lobster or crab, or a layer
of caviare, or anchovy paste.
No. 4. Minced ham or tongue,
made into paste with creamed
butter and mustard, and gami^ed
with minced olives,' or pickles,
or a slice of fresh cucumbers.
Bruise a clove of garlic and rub
the inside of a frying pan with it.
Then put in two large tablespoons
of butter, and when it is hot pour
in five eggs beaten until well
mixed, with a quarter of a tea-
spoon of salt, two dashes of pep-
per and a little celery salt or nut-
meg. Stir rapidly until the eggs
are like a thick custard, then heap
on hot toast rounds buttered and
spread with anchovy or sardine
Mix two cups shredded cabbage,
two green peppers cut in shreds
or finely chopped, one teaspoon
of celery seed, one-fourth tea-
spoon mustard seed, one-half tea-
spoon of salt, one-fourth cup
brown sugar, and one-fourth cup
PURE FOOD RECIPES
Cheese is one of the most nutritious and economical foods for those
persons who can digest it easily. Cookjng or melting and combining
it with other foods that its close texture may be broken up, and add-
ing a bit of soda to replace the potash salts taken from the milk in
making it into cheese, will usually make cheese more digestible and
valuable as a food. Do not over-cook it, or harden it by dry cooking.
Being more nitrogenous than other foods and having a distinctive
flavor, it should be served with starchy foods and those lacking in
flavor, like potato, macaroni, rice, bread, etc. It is generally served at
the end of a dinner as an aid to digestion, sometimes with only a wafer; ,
sometimes, by those who like the combination, with pie, and our
English cousins make their last course at dinner one of cheese with
Two cups grated cheese, two eggs,
one-half cup of milk, salt and
cayenne to taste.
Toast carefully slices of bread
with the crusts removed. While
hot, butter them, and then
plunge in a bowl of hot water.
Place on a heated dish and stand
in oven to keep warm while you
make the" rarebit. Put the milk
in a porcelain-lined or granite
saucepan; stand it over a mod-
erate iire; when boiling hot, add
the cheese; stir continually until
the cheese is melted; add salt,
cayenne and yolks, and pour it
over the toasted bread. If the
rarebit is stringy and tough, it is
the fault of the cheese not being
rich enough to melt.
Old English dairy cheese makes
the best Welsh rarebit. Stale
beer may be used in place of milk.
BAKED POTATOES WITH
Divide a hot baked potato in
halves the long way, lay in a slice
of cheese same size and one-third
inch thick, put together, press
slightly and cover with napkin
and by the time it is served, cheese
will have softened, and make a
savory addition to the potato.
MACARONI OR SPAGHETTI
Break into half-inch bits, cook in
boiling salted water till tender;
drain, reheat in stock, or strained
tomato, or milk, season with salt,
pepper and butter or cream, and
when serving cover with grated
cheese; or after boiling, moisten
with white sauce (see page 41),
or tomato sauce (see page 43),
add cheese in layers and cover
with buttered crumbs and bake
Two cups milk, with a pinch of
soda stirred in ; one cup very dry,
fine crumbs, one-half pound of
dry cheese; four beaten eggs,
one level tablespoon of melted
Cottolene, pepper, salt, and a
pinch of mace.
Soak the crumbs in the milk;
beat in the eggs, Cottolene, sea-
soning, lastly the cheese. Butter
a pudding dish; put in the mix-
ture, strew the top ■yvith fine
crumbs, and bake covered, half
an hour; then brown quickly.
Eat soon, as it will fall in cool-
One and a half tablespoons Cot-
tolene, one tablespoon flour, one-
half cup milk, one-half teaspoon
salt, three eggs, one cup grated
Stir the flour in the Cottolene
while heating in a saucepan.
Pour in the milk slowly and let it
come to a boil; add the season-
ing, the yolks of eggs well beaten,
and the grated cheese. Pour into
a bowl and let cool. - When cool,
stir in the whites of eggs beaten
stiff. Pour into small pans, or one
shallow pan, arid bake in a moder-
ate oven about twenty minutes.
Pies and Pastry
Pies have been greatly abused, but it is their abuse rather than their
use which should be condemned. When properly made with Cotto-
lene and eaten at suitable times and in moderation, they are no more
indigestible for a normal person than are many other foods which so
far have escaped this unjust criticism. ,
Cottolene is well adapted for pastry ; for it makes a light and deli-
cate crust, and is much more wholesome than either butter or lard.
As Cottolene contains no salt, always add salt in pastry making;
This is a universal rule and must not be forgotten.
Where Cottolene is used in place of lard or butter in recipes not
in this book, be sure and use one-third less than where lard or butter
is called for.
The best results are obtained when all the ingredients in the mix-
ing of the pastry are exceedingly cold. ,
PASTRY FOR ONE PIE
Mix one scant half level teaspoon
salt with one and one-half cup
pastry flour. Chop in with a
knife a scant one-half cup of
chilled Cottolene. When it is well
cut toget}ier, mix in very grad-
ually three tablespoons cold water,
chopping the mixture and try-
ing to avoid wet streaks. Do not
knead witti the hands. If soft
lay the paste in a pan on ice until
chilled. Sprinkle some flour on
PURE FOOD RECIPES
the, molding-board; flour the
rolling pin; roll into rectangular
shape, gather together like a jelly
roll, divide in two pieces, stand
piece on end, pat it flat, then roll
in circular shape till a little larger
than the plate. When rolled to
the required size cover the sides
and bottom of the pie dish. Fill
with the pie material. Roll the
other part of the paste in the same
way, making it one-half inch
larger than the plate to allow for
the filling and pufiing in baking.
Make several incisions in the top
crilst before you lay it on, that
there may be an outlet for the
steam, especially for meat pies.
Put it on loosely, throwing the
fullness back into the center with
the edges just even and press
them slightly together, first wet-
ting the lower edge if it is for a
juicy pie. Press the two crusts
back slightly from the edge of
the plate and mark, or not, as you
please, with a fork or crimper.
Marking keeps the crust from
pufiing, and it also helps to retain
the juice. Binding the crust to
the plate with an inch strip of
wet cloth is about the surest way
to keep in the juice.
Mix one level teaspoon of baking
powder and one scant half level
teaspoon salt with one heaped
cup of sifted pastry flour. Chop
in one heaped tablespoon of chilled
Cottolene and mix to a stiff dough
with cold water. Toss out on
floured board, pat into rectangu-
lar shape, and if to use at once
divide in halves and roll to fit the
plate. If the paste is^ soft, or
you are not ready to make the
pies, keep it in ice-chest wrapped
in wet cloth between two pans.
A larger amount of paste may be
made, if many pies are to be pre-
pared, and kept on hand in this
way; but pies are better if filled
and baked when needed.
Line a tin pie plate with paste ;
cut five or six greening apples in
quarters, remove skin and core
and lay the quarters round the
edge of the plate uniformly.
If apples are very large, cut each
quarter in half, but usually one
thick piece of apple will soften in
baking as quickly as several thin
pieces piled one- on another.
Heap the dish with the broken
pieces in center. Sprinkle two
tablespoons of water over the
fruit, but do' not sweeten until
baked. Lay the upper crust on
lightly without pressing the edges.
Bake till apples are soft. When
the crust is brown raise it a litfle
and if the apples are tender
remove the pie from the oven.
Slip a knife arovmd between the
crusts and lay the top aside.
Melt and boil slightly one-half
cup of sugar, or more if apples are
very tart, in two tablespoons of
water, add one teaspoon of butter,
or a few grains of salt, and any
spice desired (cinnamon, nutmeg
or allspice — but lemon juice with a
a little of the grated rind is best
PIES AND PASTRY
of all). Pour this syrup over the
apple, being sure that every part
has its share, replace the cover,
press the edges together, and you
have a pie in which you will
surely have saved all the juice
and flavor of the fruit.
CHERRY OR BERRY PIES
Line a deep earthen or granite
pie plate with paste, put a half-
inch strip round the edge, first
wetting the lower paste. Sprinkle
over the paste one-half cup of
sugar mixed with one rounded
tablespoon of flour and dot it
with one teaspoon of butter. Fill
the plate with cherries or fruit,
which have been washed, drained,
stoned, and rolled in sugar. Cut
through the upper crust in two or
three places, lay it over the fruit
and press the edges close to the
rim. Bake about half an hour
and serve while warm.
Line a shallow plate with a crust,
prick several holes in it to pre-
vent rising unevenly, put on a
border half an inch wide using
fluted j agger for cutting; bake
quickly and set away to cool.
Mix one level tablespoon of corn-
starch and two rounded table-
spoons of sugar and stir them into
the beaten yolk of one egg, add
one-fourth level teaspoon salt, the
beaten white and two cups of hot
milk. Strain into double boiler
and cook twenty minutes stirring
frequently. Flavor with vanilla
and pour into the baked crust.
Serve cold without any cover;
or, if you like, spread a thin layer
of apple jelly .over the top, cover
with a meringue of two egg whites
and one-half cup powdered sugar
beaten stiff and slightly browned.
Use a plate about an inch and a
half deep, with not too flaring
edge. Roll out crust an inch
larger than the plate, turn the
edge under, first being sure that
no bubbles of air are left between
crust and plate, and pinch the
crust into a fluted rim. Heat
three cups milk, beat yolks of
three eggs with one-half cup sugar
till light, add one-half teaspoon
salt and a little grated nutmeg, if
you like it ; add the hot milk and
the whites of eggs beaten ■ only
till foamy. Beating the whites
separately may seem unneces-
sary, but it gives a more uniform-
ly browned crust, of fine grain
like that of nice cake, instead of
the blistered patches of brown
over a yellow uneven surface
which is often seen. Brush the
under crust With a little white of
egg left in bowl, dredge lightly
with flour and then strain the
custard into the dish, adding the
last portion after setting the dish
in the oven, if it seems to be too
full. Bake slowly till it pufiEs up
all over and a knife inserted in
the center will come out clean and
LEMON PIE WITH MERINGUE
Mix one heaped tablespoon flour.
PURE FOOD RECIPES
or slightly less of cornstarch, with
three-fourths cup sugar, and scant
one-fourth teaspoon salt, add the
well, beaten yolks of three eggs,
and white of one^ the grated rind
of half and juice of one large
lemon, and one cup water. Bake
it in plate lined with rich crust
in a moderate oven. Beat whites
of two eggs with one-half cup
powdered sugar till very stiff,
pile it roughly on the pie and color
it slightly in moderate oven.
MtNCE PIE MEAT
The proportions for one cup of
meat are given, and the recipe
may be doubled or quadrupled
as desired. One cup each of
chopped boiled meat, seeded
raisins, brown sugar, meat, liquor,
and boiled cider; three cups
chopped apples; one-fourth cup
each of chopped citron and molas-
ses, and any stewed dried fruit
(peach, apricot, or prune); one
tablespoon each of salt and cinna-
mon, one-half teaspoon each of
mace and nutmeg and allspide if
you like, the juice of one orange
and one lemon with grated rind of
half, or one strip of candied peel,
a few grains of pepper, and when
the pies are ready to bake sprinkle
each with one-half teaspoon rose
water. Use beef from the neck
or round — juicy, lean, with a
little fat; cook in the liquor and
use this for moisture. If boiled
cider is not at hand, use syrup
from sweet pickle; or, use more
lemon and orange juice. Mix
thoroughly and cook till apples
are clear. Seal in jars for keep-
ing. Wine and brandy may be
used if considered necessary, but
it is good enough without.
Use the small, deep-colored pump-
kins, cut in quarters, remove seeds
and bake it skin side down till
tender; scoop out pulp and sift
it. For one pie allow, if baked in
a deep plate, two cups of pump-
kin, two cups scalded milk, one
beaten egg, or one common crack-
er rolled fine, one-half level tea-
spoon ginger, one-fourth cup
sugar, one-fourth cup molasses,
one level teaspoon salt, and if you
like grandmother's way, add two
tablespoons of boiled and seeded
raisins. Always boil raisins first,
for the baking in the pie will not
cook them enough. Mix in the
order given and bake in a deep
plate lined and bordered with a
plain or fluted rim. It is done
when it puffs in center and shrinks
away from the edge.
Grate the yellow from one lemon,
discard all the white part of rind
and seeds. Chop remainder of
lemon and a cup of stoned raisins
together, add a pinch of. salt, a
piece of butter the size of walnut,
half a. cup of molasses, one cup
of brown sugar and two cups of
water. Boil all together five
minutes. Then thicken with five
tablespoons flour. Bake with two
PIES AND PASTRY
Two eggs, one cup sugar, one-
half cup milk, two cups flour, two
teaspoons baking powder, one
scant tablespoon Cottolene, melt-
ed. Measure the flour and add to
the baking powder; beat the
eggs; add the sugar and beat
again; add milk and flour alter-
nately; the Cottolene is put in
last. Pour into two greased
Washington pie plates and put
the apples on top as thickly as
you can. If the slices will stand
up, so much the better. (The
apples are pared, cut in eighths,
and these eighths again divided
into two or three sections).
Sprinkle with about two table-
spoons sugar and bake for half an
hour, or until done. Serve hot.
One pint milk, two eggs, one-half
cup sugar, one-half grated nut-
meg, one cup grated cocoanut.
Beat the eggs and sugar to-
gether until light, then add the
milk, nutmeg and cocoanut. Line
two pie dishes with plain paste,
fill them with this mixture, and
bake in a quick oven for thirty
Put a quart of ripe tomatoes into
a shallow dish, add seasoning of
salt, pepper and a little butter,
and a little ginger, if liked. Cover
and let them get boiling hot.
Meanwhile make a drop batter
with two cups of sifted flour, two
teaspoons baking powder, one-
half teaspoon salt and sufficient
water to make batter that will
drop from a spoon. Add a cup
of cooked sausage meat or highly
seasoned cooked meat to the
batter and drop it from a spoon
on top of the boiling tomatoes.
Cover closely and steam for twen-
ty minutes. Serve dumplings as
a border around the tomatoes.
BAKED APPLE DUMPLINGS
For six dumplings use half the
rule for pie crust, and six large
tart apples. Core and pare the
apples. Divide the paste into
six parts, and roll outgone piece
into a shape and size that will
cover the apple. Place an apple
on this and fill the center with
sugar, a lump of butter the size
of a hazelnut and some cinnamon.
Now draw the paste over the
apples and press the edges to-
gether. Put the dumplings in a
baking pan, the rough side down,
and proceed with the others in the
same manner. Bake in a moder-
ately hot oven for half an hour.
Serve hot with a nutmeg or cold
Make pastry with one and one-
halt cups of flour, one teaspoon
of salt, five tablespooiis of Cotto-
lene and two of butter. Wash
the salt from the butter and pat
out into a flat cake. Cut the
Cottolene into the flour as for
any pastry and then moisten with
ice-water. Flatten the paste out
PURE FOOD RECIPES
with rolling-pin, lay the butter on
this, inclose from either side of
crust, making three folds, then
turn, roll and fold as usual and
chill thoroughly before using.
Roll out thin, cut into rotmds and
bake over inverted mufiin tins.
For the filling, scald one and
one-half cups of milk and thicken
with one - fourth cup of flour
mixed with one- third cup of sugar
and a little cold milk. Cook in
double boiler for ten minutes, add
a little salt and two beaten egg
yolks, and when cool flavor with
vanilla and sherry. Before filling
the shells of pastry, add one-half
cup of Sultana raisins to the
custard (if raisins are hard they
may be softened by adding to hot
filling when done). Cover with a
meringue made of two egg whites,
four tablespoons of sugar and a
little nutmeg and cinnamon.
Brown lightly and serve very
Puddings and Satices
Use Cottolene in puddings the same as you would butter, except to use
one-third less of Cottolene, unless the quantity given is very small.
The same amount of Cottolene as of butter would make the article
too rich. Make your rich pudding on days when you have the second
serving of a roast, or some made-over dish, or at times when the first
course is less in quantity than usual.
Scald one quart of rich creamy
milk. Beat four egg yolks; add
four tablespoons sugar and one-
half level teaspoon salt and beat
till thick like cream. Beat the
whites till foamy, not stiflE, mix
well with the yolks and add hot
milk. Stand cups in a shallow
pan in the oven, stir the foam
down and fill cups to overflow-
ing, or nearly so. Put hot water
in the pan and bake in a hot oven,
watching them carefully that
they do not scorch. Lay but-
tered paper over if needed. Test
with a knife as soon as they begin
to puff and if clean, not milky,
they are done. A little nutmeg
may be used if liked, but many
prefer the simple flavor of the
custard, or to boil the sugar to
caramel. (See page 63. Sago-
Known also as creamy, and poor
man's pudding. Soak for half
an hour three tablespoons of
washed rice and three tablespoons
of sugar (rounded measure) in a
quart of milk in a baking dish.
Bake very slowly, stir up from
bottom two or three times. Bake
two or three hours, or till rice is
soft, whole, and surrounded by a
rich, creamy syrup. It should
not bake dry, nor be underdone.
BUDDINGS AND PUDDING SAUCES
When just right it is queen of all
rice concoctions, and may be
served hot with butter, or cold
with cream. Boiled raisins, quar-
tered apples, or prunes, may be
cooked with rice to give variety.
Scald onto quart of milk in double
boiler; add one-third pup of sago
and one-half level teaspoon salt
and cook one hour, or till trans-
parent, stirring frequently. Add
one level tablespoon Cottolene
and one egg beaten. Melt one-
half cup sugar in a saucepan till
brown, add one-half cup water
and stir into the sago. This gives
caramel flavor. Turn into a
greased pudding dish and bake
about twenty minutes. Eat hot
with butter. One egg is suffi-
cient. Do not be tempted to
make it less delicate by adding
Mix two cups sifted pastry flour,
one level teaspoon soda, one scant
teaspoon of baking powder, two
level teaspoons mixed spice, one-
half level teaspoon salt, one-half
cup chopped raisins, and one-
fourth cup chopped nuts. Mois-
ten with one-half cup each of sour
milk and molasses and two table-
spoons melted Cottolene. Grease
some half pint tin cups, or small
Cottolene pail, or half pound
cans, half fill with the batter,
cover with greased paper, or the
tin covers if they have them; set
them on a pan in a kettle of boil-
ing water and cook about one
hour. Replenish the water as
needed, and keep half of the
mould in the water all the time.
Serve with leinon sauce.
Mix together thoroughly one and
one-half cups of flour, one tea-
spoon each of ginger and soda,
one cup molasses, two-thirds
cup of boiling water and one
beaten egg. Steam one hour in
a tube pan, and serve with either
hard or liquid pudding sauce.
Sift together one and one-half
cups flour, two scant teaspoons of
baking powder and one-fourth
teaspoon of salt. Beat four eggs
well, add one pint of milk and
mix well with sifted flour. Add
stifily beaten whites of eggs, and
bake in rather hot oven. Serve
promptly when done.
Cream four tablespoons of Cotto-
lene and add One cup powdered
sugar and one egg yolk. Beat
in half a cup of preserved fruit,
or jam when fresh berries cannot
be obtained. Chill well before ■
WHOLE WHEAT PUDDING
Mix two cups whole-wheat flour,
one-half level teaspoon' each of
soda and salt, stir in one cup of
sweet milk, one-half cup molas-
ses, and one cup stoned and quar-
tered raisins (or use ripe berries.
PURE FOOD RECIPES
dates or figs) and one-half cup
riuts. Steam as directed for
Spice Pudding. Serve hot with
butter, or cream, or lemon sauce.
It will keep several weeks.
LITTLE COTTAGE PUDDINGS
Four tablespoons Cottolene, one-
half cup sugar, two well beaten
eggs, one-half cup water, two
cups flour, two teaspoons baking
poiyder. , Beat butter, sugar and
eggs together until light, add
water, then flour sifted with the
baking powder. Bake in quick
oven in mufiin tins. Serve hot
with lemon sauce.
Put one egg, three-quarters cup
sugar, two tablespoons butter,
four tablespoons cornstarch and
one teaspoon grated yellow rind
of lemon in a saucepan and beat
smooth and light. Pour over
this a pint of boiling water, flavor
to taste with lemon juice and
STEAMED mDIAIT PUDDmG
One-fourth pound beef suet, small
piece stick cinnamon, grated rind
of one lemon, one pint Indian
meal, one pint milk, three eggs,
one gill molasses.
Chop the suet very fine and
mix with the Indian meal; put
the cinnamon in the milk, then
put it in a farina boiler to scald;
strain it while hot and stir in
gradually the Indian meal and
suet; add the molasses; cover
the mixture and let stand over
night. In the morning beat the
eggs, without separating, until
very light; stir them into the
pudding, turn into a greased mold
or well-floured pudding bag, leav-
ing plenty of room for it to swell.
If in a mold, put on the cover; if
in a bag, secure it well at the tying
place, lest the water should get
in, which will infallibly spoil it.
Put it iijto a pot of boiling water
and boil continuously for five
hours; replenish the water as it
evaporates with boiling water.
When ready to serve, remove the
pudding carefully from the mold
or bag and serve immediately
with wine sauce.
Peel and grate, about a quart of"
tart apples, enough to make a
pound of grated apple pulp ; beat
a quarter of a pound of Cottolene
and one-half pound sugar to. a
cream, and then beat into them
the' yolks of six eggs; add the
grated apple ; half a pint of cream,
the grated rind and juice- of a
lemon and a saltspoon of pow-
dered cinnamon; line a pudding
dish with half-inch slices of stale
bread, soaked in milk, or in a
custard made by mixing three
beaten eggs and a quarter of a
pound of sugar with a quart of
milk. The dish may be lined
with a nice pastry if it is pre-
ferred. After the dish is lined,
beat the whites of six eggs to a
stiflE froth, mix them lightly with
the prepared apple piilp; put
them into the pudding dish, lined
PUDDINGS AND PUDDING SAUCES
with bread or pastry, and place
the pudding in a hot oven to bake
until the bread or pastry is nicely
browned. Then dust it , over
with powdered sugar and serve
Serve with the pudding pow-
dered sugar or any good pudding
BREAD AND BUTTER
Cut in thin slices a baker's five-
cent loaf ; wash and pick one cup
currants; butter each slice' of
bread; put a layer of this bread
in the bottom of a one quart mold
or basin; then a sprinkling of
currants, and so on until all is
used; beat four eggs and half a
cup sugar together until light;
add gradually one pint of milk
and a quarter of a nutmeg gsated;
pour this over the bread; let
stand fifteen minutes and bake
in a moderate oven thirty minutes.
Serve cold with cream sauce.
QUEEN OF ALL PUDDINGS
One pint bread crumbs, one cup
sugar, one scant ounce Cottolene,
one quart milk, four eggs, juice
and rind of one lemon.
Soak the crumbs in the milk
for half an hour; beat the yolks
and sugar together until light;
then add them to the crumbs and
milk; mix and add the lemon.
Pour into the pudding dish and
bake in a moderate oven half aii
hour. Whip the whites of the
eggs until frothy; add to them
four tablespoons of powdered
sugar, and beat until very stiff.
When the pudding is done, put
over the top a layer of the whites,
then a layer of friiit jelly; then
another layer of whites and put
back in the oven a moment to
brown. Serve cold with cream
sauce. This will serve eight per-
Cream a scant halt cup of Cotto-
lene and beat into it gradually
one cup of sugar. Then beat in
three eggs, singly, until the mix-;
ture is light and smooth. Add
alternately one-half cup of milk
and about two cups of flour sifted,
with two teaspoons of baking
powder and a little salt ; then add
one cup of floured blueberries.
Bake in a moderate oven and
serve with a hard sauce.
Cream one-half cup of butter and
beat in thoroughly a generous
cup of powdered sugar. Add a
little nutmeg or a tablespoon of
Soak one-half box gelatinei in one-
half cup cold water till soft; dis-
solve it in one cup boiling water,
add one-third cup sugar and one
pint of clear boiled coffee. When
sugar is dissolved strain through
fine cloth and turn into molds or
shallow pans wet in cold water till
firm. If cooled in pans, cut in
blocks, or break up with fork,
when ready to serve. Serve with
thin cream and- powdered sugar.
PURE FOOD RECIPES
Whipped cream looks very at-
tractive with it, but it will not
blend with the jelly so well as
will the thin cream.
Put into a saucepan four table-
spoons cornstarch, one cup gran-
ulated sugar, one-third of a cup
of butter, and beat together until
mixed smooth, then pour in one
quart of freshly boiled water.
Beat the yolks of three eggs very
light and add the mixture to
them. Place over the fire in a
double boiler and cook and stir
until thick. Mince some fine
ripe bananas very fine, sprinkle
them lightly with lemon juice
and add to the custard when it is
cold. Turn into a pudding dish.
Beat the whites of the eggs to a
very stiff froth and fold in lightly
one-haJf cup powdered sugar.
Flavor with juice of one-half
lemon. Heap on top of the
pudding and brown lightly in the
oven or with salamander. Serve
A quick dessert may be made
from two large tablespoons of
raspberry jam, and the same of
currant jelly, beaten with the
whites of two eggs, and two table-
spoons of fine sugar. Mix all
together and beat until very light.
Place in slender glasses and serve
with small fancy cakes.
Blueberries and rhubarb may
be combined for jam. Use one-
third more of the pieplant, by
measure, than you do berries.
Use a little water, only just
enough to keep the mass from
burning, and sweeten well, (^ook
for fifteen minutes and seal in
jars. For pies it may be canned
with less sugar.
A little lemon juice, or vinegar,
improves blueberry pies.
SNOW PUDDING OR LEMON
Soak one-fourth box gelatine in
one-fourth cup cold water till
soft; dissolve it in one cup of
boiling water, add one cup sugar
and one-fourth cup clear lemon
juice. When the sugar is dis-
solved strain it into a large bowl
and let it cool. Break three
eggs and reserve the yolks for a
custard sauce made as for soft
custard. Beat the whites slowly
till firm and as the gelatine be-
gins to stiffen beat it till light,
and add it to the egg and beat all
together till very light and white.
When stiff enough to drop, turn
it into a deep glass dish and let it
become very cold before serving.
Serve the custard in a pitcher and
garnish the dish of snow with
drained canned pears as large and
white as possible.
Heat half cup orange juice and
half cup sugar in the double
boiler. Beat the yolks of two
eggs and half cup sugar and stir
the hot mixture into this, cooking
until spoon is coated with custard.
Then add one-fourth package of
PUDDINGS AND PUDDING SAUCES
gelatine dissolved in one-fourth
cup cold water and strain into
one and one-half cup cream fla-
vored with grating of orange peel.
Stir over ice until the mixture
begins to thicken ; then turn into
a mold and set.
FRUIT TAPIOCA PUDDING
Cook three-fpurths cup of pearl
tapioca in one quart boiling salted
water in double boiler one hour,
or till soft. Pour it into a deep
baking dish containing seven
pared and cored apples, -or peach-
es, quinces, or pears, or one quart
rhubarb cut in inch pieces, or
half a pound of stewed prunes.
Add one cup of sugar and bake
till fruit is tender. Serve hot
with cream. Or, use fresh ber-
ries, or fruits requiring no cook-
ing, or one cup of any prefe?red
jelly, and simply stir them into
the hot tapioca, and turn into a
dish and serve cold, with cream
CREAMY SAUCE AHD HARD
Cream one-foUrth cup of butter,
add slowly one-half to one cup
powdered sugar, beat in gradu-
ally two tablespoons rich fruit
syrup, or wine, or any fresh fruit
juice, and two to four tablespoons
thick cream (whipped or not, as
you have time) Serve hot by
standing bowl over boiling water
just before serving, and stirring
only till melted and creamy. Or,
serve cold; or, if for hard sauce.
omit cream and pack it into dish
for serving and chill till firm.
SOFT CUSTARD SAUCE
One pint milk, three eggs, one-
half cup powdered sugar, one
Put the milk on to boil in a
farina boiler. Beat the eggs and ,
sugar together until light and
creamy, then stir them into the
boiling milk and stir over the fire
until they begin to thicken, no
longer or the sauce will curdle.
Take from the fire, add the vanilla
and turn out to cool.
One cup granulated sugar, one
Put the sugar into an iron
saucepan, stir with a wooden
spoon over a quick fire until the
sugar melts and turns an amber
cilor, then add the water, let boil
two minutes and turn out to cool.
Pick over and wash two quarts
of cranberries in plenty of cold
water; put them into a porcelain-
lined saucepan, with a cup of hot
water, and one pound of sugar,
and stew them gently until they
are tender enough to rub -through
a sieve; then use them a^ a sauce
for roast pig or turkey, or cool
the sauce in a jelly mold. If the
sauce is cooled in molds wet with
cold water, it will make a jelly
firm enough to turn out in the
shape of the molds. ^
PURE FOOD RECIPES
Ice Creams, Ice@» Etc.
For all kinds of ice creams, turn the cfank slowly at first but continu-
ously, until it begins to stiffen; then rapidly till the beater goes hard;
remove beater, pack the cream down, cover, and repack freezer if you
wish the cream to stand and ripen. Do not draw off the water till you
repack the. freezer.
PLAIN ICE CREAM— COFFEE
Flavor one quart of rich milk
with one cup of strong clear coffee
and put on to boil. Moisten one-
half cup of sugar, one saltspoon
of salt and three tablespoons, level
measure, of flour, with one-fourth
cup of cold milk, and stir it into
the boiling milk. Cook over
boiling water twenty minutes,
stirring till smooth and thick-
ened. Add two eggs beaten with
another half cup of sugar, stir
until egg is set. Strain, and
when cold freeze; use three parts
fine ice and one part rock salt.
Half a cup of cream or more will
improve it, but it is good with-
out, and will not taste of flour if
well cooked. More eggs niay be
used if liked richer.
STRAWBERRY ICE CREAM
Mash one quart of fresh clean ber-
ries, add one cup of sugar and
when dissolved squeeze out the
juice through cheese cloth. Di-
lute with one pint of thin cream,
or cooked soft custard, add sugar
if needed and freeze as usual.
VANILLA ICE CREAM
Dissolve one cup of sugar in one
quart of thin scalded cream. '
Cool, add a bit of salt and one
teaspoon of vanilla extract, or
enough to flavor to taste. Strain
and freeze as usual.
LEMON ICE CREAM
Two quarts cream, two cups
white sugar, juice and rind of four
lemons. The rind of the lemons-'
should be rubbed in lumps of
sugar and put in the cream, beat
to a froth and freeze.
• BISQUE ICE CREAM
One quart good cream, one-half
pound macaroons, two lady fing-
ers, one-half pound sugar, four
kisses, one teaspoon vanilla, one
Pound the macaroons, kisses
and lady fingers (which should be
stale) through a colander. Put
one pint of cream on to boil in a
farina boiler, add to it the sugar;
stir until boiling hot. Take from
the fire, add the remainder of the
cream, and when cold turn into
the freezer and freeze. When
frozen add the vanilla, caramel
and the pounded cakes, and (if
you use it) five tablespoons of
sherry. Beat the whole until
perfectly smooth. Drain the
ICE CREAMS. ICES, ETC.
water from the tub, add more salt
and ice, remove the dasher, cover
the freezer and let stand three or
four hours to ripen.
Stir two squares of unsweetened
chocolate, one-half cup of sugar,
and one-half cup of water over
the fire and boil until thick. Beat
yolks of two eggs with one-half
cup of sugar, and a bit of salt, add
them to the chocolate and cook
over hot water till the egg is thick.
Cool in a pan of cold water, stirr-
ing frequently. Flavor one cup
of thick cream with vanilla, whip
it stiff, and fold it into the cooked
mixture. Pack it into a mold,
solidly and very full, cover with
buttered paper an inch larger
than the mold, and buttled
side up ; put on the tin cover and
immerse it in equal parts of fine
ice and rock salt for three hours.
Boil one cup sugar and one-fourth
cup clear black coffee together
to thread degree and then pour
in a fine stream into the beaten
yolks of six eggs. Return to the
fire in a double boiler and stir
and cook until the mixture coats
a spoon. Beat until cold, then
add one pint of double cream,
fiavored with one-fourth cup
strong, clear coffee and whipped
stiff and dry. Pack in ice and
coarse salt for four hours after
placing in the mold. Do not
freeze a parfait by turning as you
do ice cream, sherbets, etc.
, (Mis. Lincoln)
Melt one-half cup of sugar in a
saucepan and stir till dark brown;
add one-half cup of boiling water,
simmer ten minutes. Then dis-
solve in it one level tablespoon
of granulated gelatine which has
been soaking in cold water to
cover, till soft. When cold stir
into it one pint of thick cream,
whip it stiff, pack it in a mold or
the freezer can and keep it in ice
and salt (equal parts) for three
Are made with sweetened fruit
juices, diluted more or less with
water. If desired clear and hard,
they are frozen by using one part
rock salt and three parts fine ice,
turning the beater only often
enough to keep it from becoming
clogged; then, after removing the
beater and packing the mixture
tightly in the can or mold and
surrounding it with ice and salt, it
is left to ripen for an hour or
more. Boiling the water and
sugar to a syrup gives to all
frozen mixtures a finer flavor
than when used unboiled, and a
quantity may be prepared to
save time when needed.
This is any water ice frozen soft,
or till of the consistency of mush.
By using from one-half to equal
parts of salt and ice, a granular
texture is secured. The mixture
is usually served at once and melts
PURE FOOD RECIPES
Coffee, chocolate and tea may
be prepared as for the table,
cooled and frozen as above, and
they become Frapp6.
Are water ices with a creamy
consistency, obtained by using
the beaten white of egg, or a little
gelatine, and turning the crank
rapidly to make the mixture light.
Or, they are milk ices flavored
with fruit juices.
Soak one-half teaspoon of gela-
tine in one-half cup of cold water
till soft. Boil four cups of water
and two cups of sugar ten min-
utes. Halve six large, juicy lem-
ons, remove seeds and press out
the juice; add that with the gela-
tine to the hot syrup and if
needed add more sugar; when
dissolved strain and cool. Freeze
by turning the crank rapidly
until creamy .and stiff. None of
the volatile oil from the lemon
rind is used, and many prefer
this mild flavor. If lemon ices
lack brightness, or are too sweet,
add a little citric acid, or cream
of tartar. If the flavor of the
rind is preferred, steep thin por-
tions of it in the syrup.
Boil one pint each of sugar and
water ten minutes; stir hot into
the beaten whites of two eggs;
add one-half cup of lemon juice,
and the mashed pulp of six banan-
as. Strain and when cool freeze
as for sherbet.
VELVET MILK SHERBET
Scald one quart milk in double
boiler. Add two cups sugar and
stir until dissolved and milk
looksi blue, then set away to cool;
when cold, pack the freezer.
Turn in the cold milk, cover, let
stand five minutes, then turn
occasionally until it seems ice
cold, then add the strained juice
of three lemons. Turn until the
sherbet is quite thick. Add a
meringue made with whites of
two eggs, and two tablespoons
powdered sugar. Work thor-
oughly together, finish freezing,
repack and set away for two hours
to ripen. This is delicious.
Canning and Preserving
In caiming, the jars should be thoroughly washed; the fruits must be
cooked in the jars or filled into them boiling hot. The lid must be
sterile and put on the jar while both the jar and the lid are hot, and
they must not be opened until needed for use.
Large fruits are better cooked in the jars; small fruits may be
cooked in a preserving kettle and filled in the jars, providing they are
carefully handled. Small fruits should be just ripe, not under or over
CANNING AND PRESERVIN,G
ripe. This is also a good thing to remember in jelly making. Over-
ripe fruits will not combine with sugar to make a brittle, clean jelly.
A good dear syrup for preserving is made by using a pound of
sugar to half a pint of water; before it begins to boil, beat into it the
white of an egg slightly beaten; remove the scum as it rises until it is
For covering tumblers of jellies and preserves, melted paraffine is
excellent. Pour it over the perfectly cold jelly and it will form a thin
crust that is dean, tasteless and durable. It can be taken ofi and
used again. Mutton tallow is sometimes used for the same purpose.
One quart berries, one-fourth
cup water, one-half to one cup
sugar. Use only fresh fruit, free
from mold, and rinse quickly;
one spot of decay will often spoil
the whole mass. Lay aside the
large berries, mash the broken
portions, heat them in the water
in porcelain kettle till the juice
flows. Press juice out through
cheese cloth, add to the sugar and
when boiling add reserved ber-
ries; press them with wooden or
silver spoon under the syrup
without stirring to break them;
boU fast three minutes. Have
large-mouthed jars, pint size
preferred, with perfect rubbers
and covers, scalded and standing
in pan of hot water near by. Put
on the rubber, skim fruit into
jar, boil syrup two minutes longer,
strain into the jar, fiU to over-
flowing, put on cover and damp,
wipe and set away. Follow this
method for other fruit, adding
more water for blackberries, more
sugar for strawberries, and use
less of each for blueberries; cut
rhubarb in inch pieces and use
two cups sugar; cut pineapple in
half inch slices or bits, discarding
the core, and add one tablespoon
lemon juice; stone cherries, or a
part of them at 'least, and add
more sugar to the sour varieties.
Cut large peaches and pears in
halves, remove skin, core or
stone; add slivers of lemon rind
to pears and a few of the stones
to peaches. Cook till tender in
the syrup, or in water if hard,
allowing two cups of water to
each quart of pared fruit. Cut
quinces in quarters, pare and re-
move all the granular part near
the core; cook in clear water till
soft and allow from one to two
cups of sugar.
Follow the same general direc-
tions as for canning, but allow
equal weight of sugar and fruit
and cook the fruit longer in the
syrup, boiling the latter down till
Weigh the fruit after it is pared
and the stones extracted, and
allow a pound of sugar to every
PURE FOOD RECIPES
one of the peaches. Crack one-
quarter of the stones, extract the
kernels, break them to pieces and
boil in just enough water to cover
them, until soft, when set aside
to steep in a covered vessel. Put
a layer of sugar at the bottom of.
the kettle, thai one of fruit, and
so on, until you have used up aU
of both; set it where it wiU warm
slowly, until the sugar is melted
and the fruit hot through. Then
strain the kernel water and add
it. Boil steadily until the peach-
es are tender and clear. Take
them out with a perforated
skimmer and lay upon large, flat
dishes, crowding as little as pos-
sible. Boil the syrup almost to a
jelly — that is, until clear and
thick, skimming off all the scum.
Fill two jars two- thirds full of ;the
peaches, pour on the boiling syrup
and, when cold, cover with brandy
tissue paper, then with cloth,
lastly with thick paper tied
tightly over them. The peaches
should be ready td take o& after
half an hour's boiling; the syrup
should be boiled fifteen minutes lon-
up the scum. A few slices of
pineapple cut up with the peaches
flavor them finely.
Pick over and mash the currants,
let them drain without pressure
over night. Measure the juice
and allow an equal amount of
fine . granulated sugar. Put not
more than three pints to two
quarts of the juice on to boil at a
time, boil fifteen minutes. Have
the sugar hot in the oven, stir it
in and when boiling skim it, and
boil from three to five minutes, or
4iU it thickens on a cold plate;
pour into glasses which have
been in hot water, and when cold
cover with paper. Cut soft brown
or white paper one-hatf inch
larger than the glass, dip it into
flour and water mixed to the con-
sistency of thick milk. Drain,
spread it on the top, draw the
edges down smoothly and when
dry it will be tight as a drumhead.
Fruit juices that have water
with them, like stewed apples or
grapes, should boil long enough to
evaporate this water; but never
boil the sugar with the juice more
than five minutes. Apple jelly
may be made ■*ith one-fourth
less sugar, and g^een grapes re-
quire one-fourth more usuallv.
Peaches, strawberries, and rasp-
berries alone, make a thick syrup,
which is not jelly; but combined
with apple or currant juice, they
will be firm and satisfactory.
Boil one quart vinegar, four
pounds brown sugar and one cup
of mixed whole cinnamon, all-
spice, cassia buds and a few cloves
(tied in a bag), cook in it eight
pounds of fruit, ten minutes or
till well scalded. Use ripe toma-
toes peeled ; or peaches, wiped if
woolly, pared if preferred; pears
pared, and if hard, stewed till
tender in clear water; or the rind
CANNING AND PRESERVING
from ripe cucumbers, canteloupe,
or watermelons, cooked till tender
before cooking it in the pickle.
For foiir successive mornings
drain off the syrup, boil it ten
minutes, and pour hot over the
fruit. Then seal in jars as usual.
GREEN TOMATO PICKLE
Slice half a. peck of green toma-
toes, dissolve one cup salt in one
quart of cold water, pour it on
the tomato and, after standing
two hours, drain through a colan-
der till quite dry. Add to the
tomato one quart of pure cider
vinegar, one pound of brown
sugar and one level tablespoon
each of allspice, mustard and
cinnamon, and one level teaspoon
each of pepper, cloves and celery
seed. Boil all together half an
hour after it begins boiling and
then simmer two hours.
Five pounds of curranlts freed
from stems, two pounds seeded
chopped raisins, five pounds sugar,
four oranges. Ckwk currants, rais-
ins, and sugar together fifteen
minutes after the mixture reaches
the boiling point; add the grated
rind and juice of oranges and cook
all together five minutes longer.
Serve as a relish with meat.
Gooseberries may be used in
place of currants.
Make a brine strong enough to
float an egg — one pint of coarse
salt and six quarts of boiling
water; boil and skim till clear.
Pick the cucumbers as they
ripen, wash carefully without re-
moving the prickles or breaking
the skin, leave a bit of the stem
on, and keep them covered with
the brine. When you have enough
for a jar, or after they have stood
in the brine two days, drain them
from brine, put into the jar, pour
boiling spiced vinegar over and
A NEW MARMALADE
Oranges knd Rhubarb in Delicious
A delicious and little known
marmalade is made by adding to
each quart of cut rhubarb six
oranges and one and one-half
pounds of granulated sugar. The
white rind and the seeds are re-
moved from the oranges, but the
yellow peel and the fruit are to be
sliced into the porcelain-lined
preserving kettle after the rhu-
barb and the sugar are in it
This whole is boiled slowly until
quite done and thick enough to
suit. Sometimes three instead of
six oranges are used, and a pound
of fine seeded or seedless raisins
take their place.
Oranges, grapefruit and melons.
Serve very cold, wipe, divide half
way down from stem end, remove
seeds, and eat with a spoon, with
or without sugar. Berries and
small fruits: Pick over, hull,
rinse, drain and serve with sugar.
PURE FOOD RECIPES
Serve cherries, currants and
grapes with their stems. Plums,
pears, apples and bananas: wipe
and serve whole. Peaches: wipe
or pare; slice and sweeten if
preferred. Pineapples: slice half
inch thick, pare, pick ofi with a
fork, discarding hard center, add
sugar, lemon juice and a little
water and serve very cold. Com-
bine mashed and sweetened cur-
rants with sliced bananas or with
Peel, halve them each way, allow
one level teaspoon sugar, one tea-
spoon lemon juice and half level
teaspoon butter for each banana;
put them in earthen baking dish;
nearly cover with hot water and
bake about twenty minutes.
BAKED APPLES, QUINCES
Wipe, core, fill cavities with sugar,
half cover with hot water, bake
till soft, baste with the sjrrup.
Serve quinces hot and dot with
butter. Serve apples hot or cold
and with or without cream.
HARD PEARS, SWEET APPLES
Wipe, Steam till nearly tender,
add sugar to the water, turn both
into pan and bake till soft.
BAKED OR STEWED
Wipe, do not peel, cut in inch
bits, sprinkle one cup of sugar
over each pint of fruit, add no
water; let it stand one hour,
steam in double boiler, or bake
slowly in deep earthen dish till
STEWED DRIED FRUIT
Primes, peaches, apricots. Pick
over, wash in tepid water and rub
well'; soak over night in twice
their bulk of cold water. Cook
slowly, closely covered, till tender.
Skim out fruit, add to the waiter
sugar to taste (prunes need but
little or none, and lemon juice
improves them), boil five minutes,
skim and strain sjrrup over the
fruit, or boil down till thick if
Place in the preserving kettle five
pounds of gooseberries (capped
and stemmed), one pint of vine-
gar, four pounds of sugar and two
tablespoons each of ground cin-
namon and cloves. Cook all slow-
ly for about two hours, stirring it
very often during the last hour,
as it scorches easily. Put into a
crock or in jelly glasses and cover
with paraffine when cold. This
keeps indefinitely and is excellent
with either cold meats or to serve
Cottolene comiis from the snowy
cotton fields of the Sunny South.
It is a pure, veeetable-oil short-
enine — wholesome, nutritious,
economical; it shortens your food,
lennthens your life.
There are many food preparations in the market now — malted,
peptonized, albumenized, etc., adapted to nearly every condition, or
degree of invalidism. Milk has come to be considered by many phy-
sicians as the most suitable food for those seriously ill, varied by eggs,
and simple broths ; therefore, it seems unnecessary to take space for
more than a few of these combinations. Cleanliness and delicacy in
all appointments, and dainty serving, often add greatly to the value
of the food, and should never be overlooked.
Broil half a pound of lean, juicy
round steak, cut one inch thick,
until each side is just seared and
the juice will flow when cut.
Divide into small pieces and press
in a lemon squeezer (or a oieat
press if you have one), put the
juice into a small saucepan and
stand it in hot water, stir till the
liquid is hot, but do not let it
boil or cook enough to curdle.
Salt slightly and serve immedi-
ately. If you have cup in hot
water and work quickly, there
will be no need of reheating juice.
Have two cups of water (if rolled '
or flaked oatmeal is used— or three
cups, if granulated meal) and one
level teaspoon salt boiling briskly
in top of double boiler. Stir in
one cup of meal, boil rapidly five
minutes, "then place top part of
boiler over the lower part, cover,
and cook from 30 to 60 minutes.
When thoroughly cooked, take
one-fourth cup of the mush, stir
into milk or water and rub through
a strainer. Heat, season and serve.
Dilute with cream or milk.
HOT EGGS FOR INVALIDS
Place a small bowl, suitable for
serving, in a pan of water just off
the boiling point ; put in one tea-
spoon butter and let it run over
the bottom and sides; break in
one or two eggs, add a bit of salt,
and pepper if liked, and stir with
a spoon till egg is mingled and
tastes hot; serve at once with
toast or wafers. This is more
acceptable to an invalid than is a
cold raw egg, or a soft egg with
the white stringy and half-
Warm one pint of milk to blood
heat, dissolve in it one tablespoon
sugar and one -fourth teaspoon
salt, flavor with one teaspoon
vanilla or one tablespoon wine, or
strong coffee; stir in quickly one
junket tablet and turn into, a dish
for serving. When firm and cold
serve with sugar and cream, or
with any fruit whip made by
beating one egg white and one
cup of mashed or grated fresh
fruit, or stewed fruit, slowly till
After the Meal is Over
comes the washing of dishes, and the cleaning of
greasy, dirty, pots and pans. The preparation of
the meal is usually a pleasure; the clearing lip, dis-
Why not "let the Gold DUst Twins do your work"?
GOLD DUST WASHING POWDER is the quickest
dish-washer ever invented. It is a vegetable-oil soap
ground into a smooth, golden powder, which dissolves
instantly in any kind of water, cuts dirt and grease
like magic, and does the big end of the work without
GOLD DUST is also unequaled for cleaning wood-
work, scrubbing floors, cleaning refrigerators, bath-
room fixtures, oilcloth, silverware, and for washing
GOLD DUST makes every-
thing it touches clean and
sweet, and does it so quick-
ly and well that, once you
have used it, you would
as soon try to bake without
flour as keep house with-
out GOLD DUST. At all
grocers — Look for the twins
on the package.
Made only by
THE K. K. FAIRBAWK COMPANY
(Makers of Fairy Soap)
"Let the Gold Dust Twins do Your Work"
Have you a little * Fairy'
in your home?'*
There is no sting in Fairy Soap to worry-
tender skins; no dyes or high perfumes are used
to hide adulterations. Fairy Soap is so pure
and neutral that it will not harm even the skin
of a babe.
Fairy Soap is white and stays white. It
yields a rich, profuse lather, easily rinsed' qS;<
it comes in a convenient oval ccike, just fitting the '
hand ; it floats. These qualities combined jnake
Fairy the ideal soap for toilet and bath. It costs
hut jc — but you can buy no better toilet or bath
soap at any price.
THE N. K. FAIRBANK COMPANY
For snow-white Table Linen
use SUNNY MONDAY—
the white laundry soap
Sunny Monday is made from
higher grade materials than ordinary
laundry soaps — moreover, it pos-
sesses remarkably quick dirt-starting
qualities. It saves rubbing, saves
time, saves wear and tear on the
clothes, and makes them cleaner,
sweeter, whiter than they ever were
Sunny Monday will also wash woolens add flannels abso-
lutely without shrinking, colored goods without fading; works
well in any kind of water — hard or soft, hot or cold.
••SVSNY MONDJtY Bubbles
Will wash away your troubles"
Keep kitchen utensils sparkling bright
It's easy when you use Polly Prim —
the wonderful new cleaner. Obstinate stains,
scorches, tarnish, on pots and pans, kettles,
cutlery and other kitchen things, quickly
vanish before Polly Prim.
Polly Prim is a scouring soap in very
finely powdered form; in addition, it con-
tains ammonia, which not only aids in
loosening the dirt and stains, but purifies
and sterilizes ever3rthing it cleans. Polly
Prim is especially good for cleansing refrig-
Polly Prim comes in a handy, sifter-top
can. It cleans, scours, sweetens, brightens,
and does not scratch.
"When things are dim — use POLLY PRIM"
^pple Cakes 6i
Apple Dumplings 6i
Apple Pie S8, 59
Apple Pudding 64, 65
Baked Beans 46, 47
Baked Fruit 74
Baking — Time Tables for Bread, Cakes
and Puddings o
Bananas 66, 70, 74
Beans 46, 47
Beef Juice 75
Beef Loaf 35
Berry Pies 5p
Beverages 10, 11
Biscuits II, 12
Boiling — Time Tables 9
Boston Brown Bread 16
Breakfast Cakes 11
Bread 'Si 16. i7
Bread — Time Tables for Baking 9
Broiled Steak 33
Broiling — Time Tables 9
Brown Sauce 4a
Buckwheat Cakes 13
Cream Puffs 34
Cream Soups 49, 50
Croquettes 39, 40
Crullers 14, 15
Custards 61, 6a, 66, 67
Custard Pie 59
Doughnuts 13. 14
Eggs — for Invalids 75
Entr&s J . . .38
Fish Balls 39
Fish Cutlets 29
Frapp^ , 69
French Dressing 53, 54
Fresh Fruits , 73, 74
Fried Meats 33, 34
Frosting for Cakes 35, 36
Frozen Desserts 68-70
Fruit Cake 93, 33
Frying — Time Tables. ; . . 9
Cabbage 47. 48, 59
Cake Fillings 96
Cake Icing and Filling 95, 96
Canning and Preserving 70-74
Cheese 5<. 56, 57
Cherry Pie 59
Chicken Croquettes 40
Chicken, Pressed — Broiled 37, 38
Chicken Salad S3
Coffee 10. "
Coffee Cake 18, 19
Cookies 94, 95
Combread ' 13
Cornmeal Cakes I9
Cottage Pudding 64
Cranberry Sauce 67
Cream Pie si
Ginger Bread 23
Ginger Cookies .' 95
Grape Juice 11
Gravy 33, 37
Griddle Cakes 13
Hard Sauce 67
Horseradish Sauce 49
Ice Creams, . . . , 68, 69
Ices « . . .69
Icing for Cakes 95, 36
Indian Pudding 64
Invalid Cookery 75
Index — Continued
Jellies 6s, »a
Lamb ; .33, 35
Layer Cakes la-aa
Lemon Pie 59, 60
Loaf Cake aa
Uacaroni and Cheese 56
Measure, How to 8
Meat Pies 35. 36. 37
Meat — ^Time Tables for Baking 9
Milk Bread and Rolls 16, 17
Mince Pie 60
Molasses Cakes and Cookies 33, 35
Noodle Soup 50, 51
Nut Cake 23
Oatmeal Cakes 34
Oysters (all styles) 30
Oyster Chowder 30
Pancakes ' 13, 14
Parsley Butter 43, 43 ,
Parsnips 4^ '
Peaches yj ^2
S?^, ' 4S".46
Pickles 73, 73
Pies, Pastry ; .57-63
Potatoes 44. 4S. SI, S3, s6
Pot Roasts 33, 33
Poultry >..... ...31-38
Pound Cake ai
Preserves 71, 7a
Puddintp: — Time Tables for Baking 9
Pudding Sauces 43. 67
Pumpkin Pie 60
Raisin Pie 6e
Rice Cakes 14
Rice Pudding 63, 63
Roast Meats and Poultry 3 1-33
Rolls 17, 18
Sago Pudding 63
Salads — Vegetable. . .' Si-53
Salads — Fruit and Nut 54
Salads — Cheese 54
Salad Dressings 53, 54
Sally Lunn 17
Sandwiches 54, ss
Saratoga Potatoes 45
Sauces — Meat, Fish, Vegetable 41-43
Sauces — Pudding 63-65, 67
Scalloped Meat, Fish, etc - ... 39
Shortcake is, 30
Sour Milk Biscuit 11
Spanish Btm 33
Sponge Cake tp
Stewed Fruits 74
Stewed Meats 33, 34
Tapioca Pudding 67
Tarts 61, 63
Time Tables for Cooking 9
Tomatoes 45, 53, 73
Tomato Sauce 43
Welsh Rarebit 56
White Sauce 41, 4a
Whole Wheat Bread 17
Whole Wheat Pudding 63, 64
Natures Gift from the Sunny South'
SHORTENS YOUR FOOD
LENGTHENS YOUR LIFE